Management Science Theory and Practice

One of the most important human activities is managing. Ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims they could not achieve as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely increasingly on group effort and as many organized groups have grown larger, the task of managers has been rising in importance. The purpose of this book is to promote excellence of all persons in organizations, but especially managers, aspiring managers, and other professionals.

Definition of Management: Its Nature and Purpose Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims. This basic definition needs to be expanded: • As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. • Management applies to any kind of organization. • It applies to managers at all organizational levels. • The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus. • Managing is concerned with productivity; that implies effectiveness and efficiency.

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Here are some managers you may know: Steve Jobs at Apple Computer: Bill Ford. Jr. al Ford Motor Company: Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems; Jack Welch of General Electric and his successor. Jeff Immelt Cisco’s John Chambers; and Bill Gates of Microsoft One of the most powerful managers is George W. Bush, President of the United States. The Governor of the State of California is also a manager and, in some ways, so is Pope John Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the largest global organizations But middle-level managers and first—line supervisors also make important contributions 10 the goal of their organizations.

All manage organizations. We define an organization as a group of people working together to create a surplus. . In business organizations.

.. Management Science (The genesis for selection of topic is study of topics titled ‘Managing Careers, Theory and Practice’ by Yehuda Baruch (organizational career systems chapter 4) Treatment to the topic has been given in the Pakistani perspective deemed relevant. ) Merging Organizations, Merging Career Systems-Human Factor Perspective in the Wake of Mergers and Acquisitions The beginning of new millennium ushered the globe at pace fast.

The people who catches up with the world right now will be able to survive others will not be able to follow them. Same is the case with the companies of the 21st century. Companies today need to be fast growing, efficient, profitable, flexible, adaptable, and future-ready and have a dominant market position.

Without these qualities, firms believe that it is virtually impossible to be competitive in today’s global economy. In some industries such as insurance or banking, firms may move into new markets.In others such as pharmaceuticals or software technology, firms may work with smaller firms that have developed or are developing new products that they can manufacture and/or distribute more efficiently, while other firms focus on their own internal growth, leadership and development. Regardless of industry, however, it appears that it has become all but impossible in our global environment for firms to compete with others without growing and expanding through deals that result in mergers or acquisitions.Mergers and acquisitions are increasingly being used by firms to strengthen and maintain their position in the market place. The growth in mergers and acquisitions is partially responsible for the creation of mega corporations (Baruch 2004). Mergers and acquisitions can be successful but can also leads towards big failures.

The mergers and acquisitions are done to grow faster but it is not sure that the result emerges the same as it was thought. Some failure can be explained by financial and market factors, a substantial number can be traced to… Managing Theory And PracticeIntroduction “When the music changes, so does the dance. ” – African Proverb Dance is a universal language, which encompasses many styles. It is an expression of music through fluid physical movement. Dancers are dynamic performers, typically trained in a variety of disciplines such as ballet, lyrical, modern, jazz and tap.

By learning various dance techniques, a dancer is enabled to create choreography appropriate to any music given. Dancers are dynamic performers, constantly analysing the music, listening and moving to the rhythm, and creating steps to the dance.As the African Proverb suggest, as the music changes, the dance does as well. In many ways, managers are much like dancers. Dynamic managers are knowledgeable and trained in many business theories. Equipped with this knowledge, a manager is able to approach a situation or problem, much like a well-versed dancer approaches new music.

For both managers and dancers, theory is used in practice, as well as practice moulds theory. It is a constant cycle that pervades as new situations or music arises. Theory in Practice Management is a blend of art and science, which is experienced mostly by practitioners.Both of these elements are quasi-focal in the dimension of creativity and innovation, but entirely different when practice comes into the picture. Much like the dancer metaphor, science is seen as a driver of most management theories, where physics is the driver of most dancing techniques. Art is the driver for improvisation of these theories in practice. A dancer creates movement through artistic freedom with the foundation of technique. Yet a very common misconception prevails that theory and practice are polar opposites.

It ignores the fact that for every good practice there is an underlying theory. Theory gives practitioners that context and enables them to take a broader view of their functional work” (Timney, 1999). This argument has been further developed on the basis of real work experiences by.

.. The Evolution Of Management Thought The Evolution of Management Thought Through the practice of management and the continued development of commerce and wealth we are transforming our lives. In Massachusetts (USA) in the 1850s the life expectancy of a male would have been 37 years of age and a female 40: in 1929 it was 58 for a male and 61 for a female; nowadays life expectancy would be in the region 70-80 years.While appreciating the past success of ‘management’ we would also recognize that today’s accelerating pace of change is putting pressure on our organizations to be at the forefront of management thinking. If we want to maintain our standard of living our rate of change has to be comparative to the rest of the world.

But our present day management thinking has evolved from a whole range of influences over an extraordinary long period of time. In his comprehensive book ‘The Evolution of Management Thought’ Daniel A Wren writes: ” Within the practices of the past there are lessons of history for tomorrow in a continuous stream.We occupy but one point in this stream. The purpose .. is to present…the past as a prologue to the future.

” So with the aim of accelerating the development of our management practice for the future let us examine that stream of evolving management thought of the past. Our Christian past has taught that us that there was a beginning (Adam ; Eve) and there will be an end (Armageddon) and in between we should hear the word of god and obey his commandments.We therefore tend to think linearly as well as in terms of authority and compliance. In contrast the religions of the East emphasise the cyclical and regenerative properties of nature.

They therefore think in terms of cyclical processes and of being at one with God and authority. The Greek influence is evident in that we retain the Socratic concept of searching for the truth by the judging of a proposition by stringent examination to confirm its validity. It is a process of thesis – antithesis – synthesis. It…



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