If you could stand at the surface of Mars’ equator, you would feel like it is summertime at the bottom part of your body and wintertime at the top part! This is so because the temperature at the upper part of your body can be 0°Celsius, while that in at your feet can be 21 degrees Celsius. When it is snowing, the snow can vaporize before it reaches the ground. The place is a desert but a cold, cold one. Mars has so many impact craters on its surface, the largest of which is the Borealis basin.
This crater is so huge, it measures about 5,300 miles from end to end covering 40% of the face of Mars. Scientists believe that this could be the result of a gigantic impact that happened when the solar system is still being formed. If one needs to visualize the magnitude of the object that might have caused the crater to form, it must be larger than Pluto! Missions on Mars focus on searching for evidences of extra-terrestrial life. The most basic part of this undertaking is tracing for liquid water that makes life as we know it here on Earth possible.
It is now known that there is water on Mars but not in the same form as the one that fills up your glass. In fact, the Mars mission Phoenix had confirmed the presence of water ice near Mars’ North Pole. Mars has two moons – they are Phobos and Deimos, after the mythical sons of the Greek counterpart of Mars, Ares. The names were given by Asaph Hall, who in 1877 discovered these small moons. Phobos circles Mars 3 times a day while Deimos does every 30 hours. Phobos is said to be circling Mars inwards that in 50 million years, it will eventually crash into the planet or rupture.
The two moons are like the Earth’s moon, always showing the same side to their planet. It is so large its base could cover the entire Arizona state. To compare further, Olympus Mons’ volume is 100 times larger than that of Earth’s largest, the Mauna Loa volcano in the Hawaiian state. This is such an irony in a planet half the size of Earth. A Martian rover from Earth never returns. When its mission ends, the rover remains on Mars permanently. After all, all the data it has gathered are transmitted back to Earth; hence, there is no need for it to return.