The experiential metafunction: Clause as representation Metafunctions: Ideational (construes human experience) – Transitivity Interpersonal (enacts human relationships) – Mood Textual (creates discourse) – Theme/Rheme Logical (links between components rather than unit–whole) Ideational function Experiential (modelling a domain of “knowledge” – construing organic ‘wholes’) Processes, participants, circumstances [pic] |BABY | | |PRAM | | |FATHER | | |PUSH | | |WALK | | |HAIR | | |AWAKE | setting up taxonomies of events, things and qualities |semantic (role) |process |participant(s) |circumstance | |lexicogrammatical |verbal group |nominal group |adverbial group / prepositional phrase | |(realization) | |substantival/adjectival | | Processes Michael looked at her for a moment. Then he began to laugh. I’m so sorry,’ said Michael, ‘but it did sound comic, the way you said it! Cheer up, there’s no tragedy. I have to go to the village this evening, and I’ll fetch your suitcase then. It’ll be quite safe at the White Lion. Did you have any lunch by the way? We were wondering about you. Thompson, p 79: Three questions that can be asked about any process and the clause of which it forms a nucleus: 1. What kind of process is it? 2. How many participants can/must be involved in the process? 3. What roles can/must those participants play? |material (‘doing’, ‘causing’) | | |behavioural (‘acting’) | |major clause |mental (‘thinking’, ‘sensing’, ‘evaluating’) | |(process) types |verbal (‘saying’) | | |relational (‘being’, ‘having’) | | |existential (‘existing’, ‘appearing’) |
Material processes Associated participants: Actor ; Goal Actor. the participant always inherent in a material clause. The Actor can be animate (‘action’) or inanimate (‘event’). The process it participates in may or may not extend to affect another participant, the Goal. Actor Process Goal They were making supper. Actor Process Circumstance The car crashed into a tree Goal Process Circumstance Rome was not built in a day. Actor Process Goal Circumstance Ambulance crews, firefighters and police helped to rescue passengers from the water.
Goal Process Actor The passengers were rescued by ambulance crews, firefighters and police Mental processes Associated participants: Senser ; Phenomenon Phenomenon. Participant role in the transitivity structure of a mental clause: the phenomenon sensed by the Senser. (Senser in bold; Phenomenon in italics. ) She saw them. She saw them leaving the house. These people don’t understand functional grammar. She recognized the dilemma she and every teenager around her found themselves in. One professor felt we should get our feet dirty. Sarah fears nothing. Nothing frightens her. His behaviour disgusted many people. Many people condemned his behaviour. Relational processes • attributive: Associated participants: Carrier ; Attribute • identifying: Associated participants: Token ; Value (Identified ; Identifier) A Carrier is construed as being ascribed or attributed to an Attribute: the relation can be interpreted as one of class-membership – the Carrier is construed as a member of the class described by the Attribute. |Carrier |Process |Attribute |Circumstance | |His clothes |are |very expensive. | |You |are |a fool. | | |The barracks |has become |an art gallery |now. | |Some granite |has |large crystals. | | |The teacher |wasn’t |in her office. | | |The names of some structures |appear |in boxes. | |This city park |comes |alive |on Sundays. | In identifying clauses a general relationship of symbolization is construed between two participants, the Identified and the Identifier. The relationship can also be characterized as one between Token and Value: Identified Identifier Token Value This sentence is an example of an identifying clause. Identified Identifier Token Process Value Each structure expresses one kind of semantic organization. Identified Identifier
Token Process Value The course comprises two years of full-time study. Verbal processes Associated participants: Sayer and Verbiage (+ Receiver) • She told me the story of her life. • He couldn’t say a word. Existential processes Associated participant: Existent (+Circumstance) 1. There is a fly in my soup. Behavioural processes Associated participant: Behaver (+Range) 1. He was laughing. 2. They hummed a little tune. 3. We were watching the news. Grammatical characteristics of process types: Material: typically occur with the progressive in the present tense Mental: typically occur in the simple present tense
Relational: typically occur in the simple present tense Halliday 138: behavioural sharing characteristics of material and mental verbal sharing characteristics of mental and relational existential sharing characteristics of relational and material The Range Participant • “the element that specifies the range or scope of the process” • “elaborates or enhances the process” (Martin et al 118) • a ‘complement’ which o forms a semantic relationship with the verb (cognate, or close in meaning) o specifies part of the process o is not affected by the process I gave a description of the person I saw. verbal process) They speak English. (verbal process) We played tennis the whole afternoon. (material process) They were singing folksongs. (behavioural) He played the guitar. (material) We visited the church. (material) ‘Circumstantial-like’: They have walked several miles. (material) I climbed that mountain because it was there. (material) They reached the North Pole. (material) We spent the whole morning in town. (material) The Beneficiary (material and verbal processes) The duke gave my aunt a teapot. (Recipient – ‘to whom? ‘) I sent a letter to everyone who lived in the neighbourhood. Recipient) She did me a favour. (Client – ‘for whom? ‘) She posted a letter for me. (Client) They asked me a lot of questions. (Receiver – ‘to whom? ‘) The general shouted at them. (Receiver) “Stay with her! ” he had said to Mrs. Allen. (Receiver) Target (verbal processes) Can you describe the person you saw? He read and criticized her novel. Circumstances Location: Temporal (when? ) – She’ll arrive on Thursday. Spatial (where? ) – She lives in Birmingham. Extent: Temporal (for how long? ) – She has lived there for eight years. Spatial (how far? ) – It slid halfway over the floor.
Manner (means/quality/comparison) (how? ) – Daddy went off quite happily at 7. 40. He answered with a smile. Cause: Reason (why? ) – We have to be there early as it’s Friday. Purpose (what for? ) – He popped over for a chat. Behalf (who for? ) – He’s doing the shopping for me. Contingency (concession) – Despite his eagerness he’s unlikely to succeed. Accompaniment (who/what with? ) – She returned with(out) her gun / with her friend. Role: Guise (what as? ) – He returned and remained at the hotel as an inoffensive tourist. Product (what into? ) – The constable’s features broadened into a grin. Matter (what about? – I’ll wager he learns more about you than you about him. Angle (from what point of view? ) – To a great mind, nothing is little. . CIRCUMSTANTIATION (clipped from http://minerva. ling. mq. edu. au/Resources/VirtualClassroom/classroom. htm) Each type of circumstance is realized by a particular set of prepositional phrases and/ or adverbial groups; prepositions include: Location: at, by, on, in, to, towards, from, onto, into, out of, through; above, below, in front of, behind, over, under; after, before, since, ago [‘post-position’: ten years ago] Extent: for, along, across, throughout
Manner: by, with; like, unlike, as; in [a … way/manner/fashion] (Note that certain prepositional phrases which appear to be locative serve as Manner: how did he walk? – he walked on all fours. How did he leave? – He left in a huff. ) Cause: for, for the sake of, on behalf of; through, of, because of, as a result of, thanks to, for want of Matter: about, on, of, regarding, concerning Accompaniment: with, without; as well as, besides, instead of, except [for] Role: as, by way of, in the role/ shape/ guise/ form of |Spatial |Temporal | |Extent |Distance |Duration | |(including interval) |walk (for) seven miles |stay (for) two hours | | |stop every ten yards |pause every ten minutes | | | Frequency | | | |knock three times | |Location |Place |Rest |Time |Rest | | | |work in the kitchen | |lecture at noon | | | |eat out in Sydney | |leave on Tuesday | | | |Motion | |Motion | | | |get out of the kitchen | |wait until Tuesday | | | |go to Sydney | |have worked since Tuesday | (based on Halliday pp 152-153) o They must have gone a good two miles before they met another car. o After a couple of miles he turned right into a network of lanes. o Passengers are regularly forced to stand for up to 70 miles.
On the edge of a jutting pinnacle, three or four hundred feet above him, there stood a creature somewhat resembling a sheep in appearance, but armed with a pair of gigantic horns. The big-horn – for so it is called – was acting, probably, as a guardian over a flock which were invisible to the hunter; but fortunately it was heading in the opposite direction, and had not perceived him. Lying on his face, he rested his rifle upon a rock, and took a long and steady aim before drawing the trigger. The animal sprang into the air, tottered for a moment upon the edge of the precipice, and then came crashing down into the valley beneath. Other functions of prepositional phrases Participant: o The painting was stolen by one of the guards. Actor) o Miss Schwarzkopf is letting herself be tempted by the classic sin of artistic pride. (Phenomenon) o I said hello to them. (Receiver) o I forgot to send a Christmas card to old aunt Jemina. (Recipient) o I spoke to him in fluent Russian. (Verbiage) o He plays well on all these instruments. (Range) o He looks like Kermit the frog. (Attribute) Part of noun group: o Nine out of ten students love functional grammar. Modal or conjunctive adjunct: o So in fact you didn’t see anything at all. o These people are by definition realists. Verb + preposition + noun = Predicator + Complement o I’m looking for my glasses. Behavioural process + Range) o He switched on the computer. (Material process + Goal) Projecting – verbal processes |William said, |”How can it be new when it’s old? ” | |He said |that he was a detective. | |He asked me |if I would stand by the bargain | |Projecting |Projected | |”To a great mind, nothing is little,” |remarked Holmes, sententiously . | |Projected |Projecting | [pic]
Summary of processes and participants: |Process type |Associated participant(s) |Example |Other | |material |Actor, Goal (Beneficiary) |Stella opened the door |Range | | | | |Circumstance | |behavioural |Behaver |She was smiling. | | |mental: perceptive, |Senser, Phenomenon |She didn’t see anyone. | | |cognitive ; affective | |She couldn’t understand it. | | | |She hated being tricked. | | |verbal |Sayer, Verbiage (Receiver) |She told the truth. | | |relational: intensive,|Identifier, Identified |Her brother was the host. | | |circumstantial ; |Token, Value |The silence was threatening | | |possessive |Carrier, Attribute |The neighbours were at home. | | | |Possessor, Possessed |They had a big dog. | | |existential |Existent |There was a madwoman in the attic. | [pic] Ergativity An alternative analysis to the transitivity analysis. See Martin et al p 113, Thompson p 112 Central concepts: Process Medium: Participant, typically the subject of the sentence (‘the entity through the medium of which the process comes into existence’ – Halliday p 164) Agent: ‘Doer of the action’ corresponding to Actor (‘the participant functioning as an external cause’ – Halliday) Range: covers all ‘object’ roles I opened the door. (Agent – Process – Range) The door was opened. (Medium – Process) The door opened. (Medium – Process) Oil floats on water.
(Medium – Process – Location) The sugar dissolved. Medium – Process) [pic] Tasks: Supply the transitivity (experiential analysis) of these sentences |Mary |has written |a letter | | | | | |(experiential) | |Mood |Residue |(interpersonal) | |Subject | Finite |Predicator | Complement | | |Theme |Rheme |(textual) | |Mary |likes |poetry. | | | | |Mood |Residue | |Subject | Finite |Predicator | Complement | |Theme |Rheme | |Mary |is |taller than me. | | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Complement | |Theme |Rheme | |Models |are |her most important idols. | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Complement | |Theme |Rheme | |Her most important idols |are |models. | | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Complement | |Theme |Rheme | |There |has been |a burglary |in our house. | | | | | |Mood |Residue | |Theme |Rheme | |The children |asked |us |a lot of questions. | | | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Complement |Complement | |Theme |Rheme | |I |watch |these models |on TV. | | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Complement |Adjunct | |Theme |Rheme | |He |is |on holidays |at the moment | | | | | | |Subject |Finite + Predicator |Adjunct |Adjunct | |Theme |Rheme | She |has |left |her husband |for him | | | | | | | |Subjet |Finite |Predicator |Complement |Adjunct | |Theme |Rheme | Check your answers with the key. Texts for analysis: Identify the process types used in these two advertisements for cars. Concentrate on the main clauses. What can the process types reveal about the general style of the text? What matters is what car you’re in. In the new Renault Megane, prior to impact, our anti-lock braking system helps you maintain control.
Collision sensors then fire tiny, explosively-charged clasp pre-tensioners to tug any slack out of your safety belt – binding you into your seat. 10 milliseconds later, a two-stage front airbag inflates, holding your chest and had in place far more gently than conventional systems. (Lateral airbags do the same in a side impact and are seat-mounted to be in the right position whatever your height. ) After 70 milliseconds, seatbelt tension transfers to steel shock-absorbing belt mounts. They deform with pressure, taking the strain in place of your chest and shoulders. Close protection head rests cradle your head and neck against ‘whiplash’. That’s in the first tenth of a second. You’ve hardly realised you’re going to crash. Yet already everything vital for your safety has happened.
So far this year, our Systems for Restraint and Protection, or SRP, as we call it, has won the Megane ‘Safest Car in its Class’ rating at the official Euro NCAP crash tests and What Car? magazine’s coveted Safety Award. By all means invest effort and discipline looking and feeling a young as you can. But do it thankful that our concerns have been the opposite. We want you to get old. Call 0800 525150or visit www. renault. co. uk Stay beautiful The New Megane Safest car in its class. THE NEW TOYOTA YARIS. IT DEFIES LOGIC. Sports cars are beautiful. Small cars are practical. That’s the conventional wisdom. Here’s the unconventional. The new Toyota Yaris is both. It has a stylish innovative shape which is also the most aerodynamic in its class. Making it both easy on the eye and on the pocket.
Inside it’s the same. A beautifully-designed holographic instrument panel, angled towards the driver, makes keeping your eyes on the road and on your instruments less of a strain. It’s also very spacious (2. 5 cubic metres) with a rear seat that moves forward up to 15 cm to increase the size of the boot, or folds down completely for when you really need more room. Available in 3 and 5 door versions, prices range from ? 7,495 to ? 11,245 and there’s a choice of payment schemes to make ownership even easier. What could be more practical? 3 year/60,000 mile warranty. Telephone 0800 777555 www. toyota. co. uk/yaris The car in front is a TOYOTA YARIS