Sikhism is one of the most ancient religions of India and the believers of this religion are called Sikhs that means disciples.
The founder of Sikhism was Guru Nanak. Sikhism stands for casteless society and preaches thahe Holy Book Of Sikhism is Guru Granth Sahib Guru Gobind Singh declared before his departure to the heavenly abode that this Holy Granth would be the spiritual guide for Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh made Khalsa (Sikh common wealth), a full-fledged nation and taught them to perform the noble duty of defending their motherland Guru Gobind Singh, the last among the Gurus (1666-1708) initiated the Baptism Ceremony.
By the time of tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh, the Sikhs had to defend themselves from Muslim persecution and Guru Gobind Singh organized his followers into a military order called Khalsa which literally means “pure”. Sikh men and women were initiated into the Khalsa by sharing a drink of sweetened water called “Amrit” a symbol of loyalty to God. After initiation, they are given the name Singh (Lion). In this religion, it is obligatory for all Sikh men to always have five K’s. Kesh, Kirpan, Kada, Kachcha and Kanghi (long hair, small sword; ron bangle drawer, and a comb). t all people stand equal. Guru Nanak was born into a hindu family.
Later he said that there is only one God and criticised Hindu and Muslim religious sectarianisms The Sikhs The Afghan defeat of the Maratha armies accelerated the breakaway of Punjab from Delhi and helped the founding of Sikh overlordship in the northwest. Rooted in the bhakti movements that developed in the second century B. C. but swept across North India during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Sikh religion appealed to the hard-working peasants.The Sikh khalsa (army of the pure) rose up against the economic and political repressions in Punjab toward the end of Aurangzeb’s rule.
Guerrilla fighters took advantage of the political instability created by the Persian and Afghan onslaught against Delhi, enriching themselves and expanding territorial control. By the 1770s, Sikh hegemony extended from the Indus in the west to the Yamuna in the east, from Multan in the south to Jammu in the north.But the Sikhs, like the Marathas, were a loose, disunited, and quarrelsome conglomerate of twelve kin-groups. It took Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), an individual with modernizing vision and leadership, to achieve supremacy over the other kin-groups and establish his kingdom in which Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims lived together in comparative equality and increasing prosperity. Ranjit Singh employed European officers and introduced strict military discipline into his army before expanding into Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Ladakh.