The Manhattan Project is one of the project that has some special attention on its name that is related to the project has played a dangerous role and still it is continuing one. Many scientists started the research on fission i.e. breaking of the uranium atom in 1938, with the competition to find the Atomic bomb first after word spread that Hitler would build an atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project refers to the Army Corps of Engineers’ “Manhattan Engineer District,” the code name of the military project established in June 1942 for atomic?bomb research and development.Albert Einstein urged the president Franklin Rosevoult to develop atomic bomb.
The president agreed and research on that preceded secretly naming it as “The Manhattan project”. At the same time the discoveries in Neutral physics and nuclear reaction went on. The political pressure around the world was so bad that they immediately started the research work formally named as the “MED” (1942-1946).some of the countries which involved in this are U.S, U.K, and Canada.
InvolvementThe research went on with extreme secrecy. During 1945, the work went on with 40 labs and factories with employees around 200,000 members. The total cost of expenditure was around $ 2 billion of U.S.
D.Great number of scientist were involved out of which some of them are Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, J. Robert Open Heima, Harold Urey, Szilard (called the Prophet of nuclear age and father of the bomb).
MED- Manhattan engineering districtThe Manhattan project with code named the S-1 project was headed by Arthur .H. Compron, The project began on September 17th 1942.Sites of the projectThe general locations of the sites were Hanford engineer woks, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos: The Laboratory, Los Alamos: The Town ; Metallurgical Laboratory.Administrators of the projectThe Manhattan Project was headed by Brigadier General Leslie B.
Groves with Well Vanneval Bush, J. Robert open Heemer, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Harry Truman and others. The Manhattan project brought together American, British, Canadian and European scientist to design the bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in august 1945.The project was equivalent in size to “the entire American automobile industry. The outcome of the project brought new prestige to science and scientist pared way for massive growth and militarization of the post war science.The research on the coward project brought a drastic improvement in the 20th century science.
Final preparationsOn July 1945 final preparations began at the New Mexico test site, the Jornada Del Muerto at the Alamagordo bombing range, for first atomic bomb test, the code name being trinity. The date was finalized for July 16th.July 3- casting of the U-235 project for little boy was completed.July 7th – explosives lens casting for trinity was completed.July 10th –the best lens castings were selected for trinity.July 11th –the first atomic bomb began.July12 and July 13th – the plutonium Core and the gadget component left Alamos for the test site separately.
Assembly of gadget began at 1300 hrs on July 13th. The assembly of gadgets explosives lens, uranium reflector and the plutonium core was completed at ground zero at 1745 degreesJuly 14th- gadgets was hosted to the top of 100 feet tower. The parts were connected ,final test preparations started.Little boy bomb units were transported out of San Francisco on the USS Indianapolis for Tinian.
The full scale test of the implision was done, initially failed and the calculation was corrected by the Bethe.July 16th – at 5:29:45 am gadget was detonated in the first atomic explosion in history. The explosives yield was 20-22 kt vaporizing the steel power.Outcome of ManhattanIn March 1945, the S- 50 thermal diffusion plant finally began enriching the uranium. The Manhattan project was achieved with the combined effects of the brilliant scientist, a test bomb named “fat boy” was build. On July 16th, 1945 at 5:29:45 am, the first nuclear test named TRINITY was tested in New Mexico desert and this was the latest instrumented explosion carried over up to this date. The success of TRINITY had a great mark in the history that it divided the era into pre-atomic and atomic era and also led to two other atomic bomb researches which would have used in World War II.
The heat of the Trinity explosion melted the sandy soil around the tower to form a glassy crust known as “trinitite”.Eye witness by O.R Friseh on trinity:-The bomb was dropped from an aero plane, but exploded on a platform on top of 100 feet high steel tower. He penned out that he watched the explosion from, a point said to be about 20 or 25 miles away and members of the coordinating council was there it seems. They feared that they would be burned by ultra violet rays. He described that suddenly the hills were bathed in brilliant light, as if somebody has turned the sun on with a switch.
The hills were described as flat and colorless like scenery but the light of sudden flash.The light appeared constant for about one or two seconds and began to diminish rapidly. It appeared like a small red ball similar to sun followed by the second. It grew up and within a minute it was difficult to see with the increasing light of dawn. This was followed by the long resembling thunder like noisy wagons running around the hills. The explosions was noisy that they closed their ears with fingersCATASTROPHIC Explosion and its effectsOn Aug 6th, 1945 ‘Enola gay’ the American bomber released the first atomic bomb to be used in warfare.
It was named as “little boy” weighing 9,000 pound dropped in Hiroshima in Japan. The result was the death of 66 thousand people of Japan.Total vaporization of the bomb was 1 ½ miles in diameters, total destruction around 1 mile in diameter. After three days the 2nd bomb was carried on Nagasaki weigh is around 10,000 pounds named as “fat man” destroying half of the city.
Long term effects of the MEDMED had a very great destruction effort leading to population drop from 422,000 to 383,000. The left person was affected by radioactive poisoning and the rain followed by explosion was contaminated with radioactive particles. This doesn’t come to an end, other than this the people were affected by nausea, vomiting, several burns, diarrhoea, fatigue, hair loss etc. The severe effect was carrying the Leukemia to their offspring.
Leukemia is the condition, which occurs due to malignancy, associated with abnormal and uncontrolled increase in total white blood cell count up to 1,000,000/cu mm.Positive effects of the atomic testThe atomic test along with its serious destructive effects had some positive things to the medical field i.e. the same technology is used in CAT scans and Chemotherapy treatment; these nuclear plants were more capable than the traditional power plants. With the help of this research, scientist discovered to harness the power of nuclear energy.
ConclusionThe Manhattan project the effect of the research was so destructive that the scientist were very afraid and considered that it was inhuman, being used in Japan and should only be used in case of critical emergency at the time of war as a protective force.The scientists were astonished to see that both the “Little boy” and “Fat man” only used 1/10th of its 1 % of explosive capabilities. Every one of us knows the dangerous thing which happened due to the exploration of this atom bomb, but still we are unable to stop the manufacturing of such a dangerous bomb in the world.;nbsp;Reference:1.
Paul S. Boyer. (2001), The Oxford Companion to United States History, http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-ManhattanProject.html2.
Office of History and Heritage Resources, (2001), retrived March 31, 2009, The Signature Facilities of the Manhattan Project http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/sources.htm3. Ronald H.
Bailey, (1977), The home front, U.S.A., Time-Life Books.4. Trinity. (1945).
Retrieved on, March 31, 2009,http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Trinity.html5. Curtis Andressen, Milton Osborne (2002) A Short History of Japan: From Samurai to Sony, Allen ; Unwin. Paul S. Boyer. (2001), The Oxford Companion to United States History, http://www.encyclopedia.
com/doc/1O119-ManhattanProject.html Office of History and Heritage Resources,(2001), retrived March 31, 2009, The Signature Facilities of the Manhattan Project http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/sources.htm Ronald H. Bailey, (1977 ), The home front, U.
S.A., Time-Life Books. Trinity. (1945).
Retrieved on March 31, 2009,http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/Trinity.html Curtis Andressen, Milton Osborne ( 2002 ) A Short History of Japan : From Samurai to Sony, Allen ; Unwin.