World Civilization

1) Rubber has a distinct problem with extreme heat, wherein it melts, and extreme cold, wherein it stiffens and makes it heavier. In 1839, Charles Goodyear was able to discover the process of vulcanization which cured the whole mass, making it more resistant.2) The Dutch and the English started to build faster and more maneuverable ships, and developed clever tactics to combat the Iberian sea powers. With faster and more agile ships, they harassed the Iberian merchant ships, as well as outmaneuver the bigger Iberian galleons.3) African Slaves value the sense of community. They interacted with other slaves when they were given an opportunity to do so. Hence, they were able to maintain some of their cultural beliefs, even if some were slightly modified to fit Western cultural standards.4) Napoleon reinstituted slavery after Toussaint L’Ouverture’s acts in Santo Domingo. The French officials apparently saw it as his determination to make Santo Domingo independent from any colonial rule, which prompted Napoleon to send an army to capture L’Ouverture.5) The printing press made it possible for information to be printed faster, as opposed to hand-written information. With more reading materials readily available, it enabled the population to gather both old and new ideas, whilst training them to think more critically. Another effect involved is efficiency, as it made books faster and way cheaper to market.6) A difficult life in Ireland forced these immigrants to enter the United States. However, they entered at the bottom rung of the free-labor ladder. This did not bother them for they would take any job that would enable them to survive rather than return to Ireland.7) Proto-industrialization is a phase upon which modern industrial economies underwent a development to become completely industrial societies. It paved the way for social changes within agrarian societies, which would ultimately spark during absolute industrialization.8) One reason would be the Great Depression which greatly affected the whole world, especially the American colonies which showed American economic vulnerability. Another would be the continuous revelation of secrets by the Printing Press which opened the citizens to the truths of society. Finally, there was internal struggle as different political groups and races tend to square off against each other (e.g. Democracy vs. Communism), which apparently showed instability.9) Turkey had access to oil around the Middle East and near the Soviet Union. Since Germany needs oil to fuel their industry and their war machines, they required to ally themselves with Turkey, which was their former ally during World War I.10) The main objectives that baseball team owners had in mind was to make money, and in the same sense, to entertain the public, especially during the time of Great Depression. The National League, followed by the American League later on, became a successful business venture as it provided immense profit for these businessmen, and numerous jobs for the public. 



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