World War One

The First World War can be also known as the great world war among the social groups. This war started from the year 1914 and it continued till 1918. First World War is considered to be the first disaster that was created or made by human.  This war took place at Europe but it can be said that it was a global war. A great deal of destruction took place in this war and the map of Europe was completely changed after the First World War. According to the historians the main reason that made the war started was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the successor to the Austro Hungarian throne. This assassination was done by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen of Austria-Hungary on 28th of June 1914. Many of the writers, scholars and historians are still not sure about the major and basic underlying cause for this assassination. Whether it was for wealth or empire? None of the leaders had the idea that this war will be prolonged so much and they were in thoughts that the war will end till the December 1914 but the results turned out to be a totally changed picture and the war. This time after a year the war again began in a disastrous way that was never observed before. This war continued till 1500 days and the resultant was a pure war producing deadlock. Finally the peace agreement was declared officially on 11th of November 1918 but before this a huge loss of lives, both civilians and military. According to a careful estimate almost 9 million people lost their lives over the battlefield. This war has changed the world forever. This war is knows as the global world war as it took place between the two major alliances; one of them was the Entente powers consisting of France, Russia, United Kingdom and the empires that were linked with the Entente powers. After few time many other countries like Japan, Italy, Germany, United States and so on joined this war so it became the world war. (The Great War, n.d.)

Diplomatic Effects of WW1:

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After the end of World War 1 there were some diplomatic changes in Europe as well as on the whole world which helped in maintaining the peace during 1920’s and 1930’s. There were some peace treaties signed between the countries which were involved in World War 1, some of which are:

The Treaty of Versailles:
The Treaty of Versailles which was signed in 1919 was a peace treaty between the allies and Germany in which Germany was blamed responsible for the war and was required to pay for all the damage and loss and also to pay enormous war reparations. The allies also took control of the specific German territories due to the treaty.

The Treaty of Saint-Germaine:
The Treaty of Saint-Germaine was signed on 10 September 1919 between the allies and the newly formed republic of Austria which declared Austro-Hungarian Empire to be dissolved and the independence of Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia was recognized.

The Treaty of Trianon:
The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the allies and the Hungary in which the borders of Hungary were established as well as its international situation. (Effects of WW1, n.d.)

Causes of WW2:

After the end of World War 1 in 1918 Adolf Hitler became the head of the nationalist socialist party known as the NAZI party and declared himself chancellor of the Germany in 1933. The events and some reasons that took place afterwards eventually led to the outbreak of World War 2. There were many causes for the outbreak of World War 2 some of which are defined under:

Treaty of Versailles:

The treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty which was signed between Germany and the allies on the 28 June 1919 in Versailles France thus ending the global conflict. The main goals of this treaty were the disarmament of Germany, to let other entities administer significant territories of Germany and the payments of properties and money by the German country to the affected countries. However the result of this treaty was that Germany was not satisfied by this treaty which led to later conflict.

League of Nations:

The League of Nations was an international organization which was founded after the end of World War 2. The main goal of the League of Nations was to prevent future wars through disarmament and collective security and settling disputes between countries. However due to the lack of the Leagues armed forces and the self interest of the members of the League made the League weak and incapable of preventing later conflict.

Fascism:

Fascism is the philosophy in which there is a strong centralized government with the policy and belief of nationalism and is headed by a dictator. Due to the fact that Hitler was a dictator and was leading Germany, the allies considered Germany as a fascist country and were against fascism.

Anti-Communism:

After the Russian revolution in 1917, Russia emerged as a strong communist nation which led many Germans to fear that a same revolution might occur in their country as well. Their fear came out to be true after the end of World War 2 when the communist tried to gain power in Germany. The German state of Bavaria declared themselves as the Bavarian Soviet Republic which resulted in the outbreak of a civil war in Germany between the communists and nationalists. So the Germans became anti communists and wanted a strong leader to lead Germany against future communist’s plans to establish hold in Germany.

Territorial Expansionism:

Territorial Expansionism is a doctrine of a nation of expanding the territories. Adolf Hitler quoted in his book “Mein Kampf” that in order for a nation to survive and thrive, it needs to expand its territories whether forcefully. So this was one of the main reasons behind the war because Hitler wanted to make Germany an empire and he did so by invading Poland in 1939 which sparked the outbreak of World War 2.

Anti-Semitism:

The main ideology of the NAZI party was anti-Semitism which is the religious, social, ethnic and cultural hostility towards the Jews.  Due to this ideology Adolf Hitler showed great hatred towards the Jews by killing Jews and throwing them in concentration camps where they were forced to work or die. This campaign of ethnic cleansing was done by the NAZI party led to the other nations to other nations to protest against this act which later led to the World War 2. (World War II, 1)

Role of countries and individuals:

World War 1 is commonly known as global war because at that time majority of European nations were involved and affected by this war. Basically this war was fought between two alliances. The Entente Powers which included France, Russia and United Kingdom fought against Germany and Austro-Hungarian empires. Later on other countries joined the war such as Japan, Italy, United States and the Ottoman Empire. By the end of the war only Spain, Switzerland remained neutral among European countries. (Countries involved in WW1, n.d.)

Similarities and Differences in the Origin of Both the Wars:

The major difference between the origins of both the wars was that the First World War started because of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 who was the heir to the throne of Austro-Hungarian Empire by a Bosnian-Serb citizen Gavrilo Princip so Austria-Hungry retaliated against Serbia. Whereas the Second World War started when Hitler led the Germans invade Russia, France and Poland in 1939. Another difference was that Adolf Hitler conducted Holocaust. One more difference was that the technology was more advanced in World War 2 then in World War 1. The major similarity between the origins of both the wars was the seizing of territories by the Axis. Germany wanted to dominate all of Europe in World War 1 and also in World War 2 because of the idea of expansionism which Adolf Hitler narrated in his book “Mein Kampf”. Another similarity was that Italy was on the side of Germany in both wars and later on changed sides with the allies in both wars. (Kevin, 2006)

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