From reaction. Also, the non-noble metal like Co

From last decade Bio-fuel energy has
attracted significant attention due to increased energy consumption and
environmental issue.  Biomass boons
renewable substitutes to Fossil-fuel as a resource for production of bio-oil
and valuable chemicals.1 With the help of physical, chemical and
biological methods biomass can be converted in to wide range of valuable chemical
sources.  Bio-oil, a source of green
energy produced from fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.2
Phenolic compounds (bio-oil) from pyrolysis of biomass usually contain up to
60% oxygen, deoxygenation helps to improve the heating value and stability.3
Up to now, several methods such as aqueous phase reforming,4
cracking5 and hydrodeoxygenation6-10 developed for
upgrading of bio-oil.

Generally,
noble metal-based catalysts for example Pd,11,12 Pt,13,14 Rh,15 Ru4,16 and
Gold-based17,18 systems are still most important catalysts for
HDO of biomass derived compounds even though those precious metals have
extensive applications are limited by low earth-abundance and high cost. There
are so many studies of non-noble catalysts reported on the basis of unmodified
and changing alkaline and noble metals activity of Co-Mo and Ni-Mo15,19-22
type catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation reaction. Also, the non-noble metal like
Co and Ni usually show low activity and it required high pressure (> 2 MPa),
high temperature (> 150 °C) and maximum consumption of energy in
the process. In some studies molybdenum carbide on different support used for
hydrodeoxygenation reaction. The non-noble metals did not show
yet total conversion in mild condition. Therefore, alternative heterogeneous non-noble metal base
catalyst with shows high performance in mild conditions are desired for the
hydrodeoxygenation of biomass.

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Metal-organic
frameworks, a new type of porous crystalline materials which is used from past
two decades and their potential applications in catalysis, gas separation and
storage, sensor etc. It is very popular because having high surface area and
controllable structures. Researchers designed and made different functional
MOFs by changing metals and organic linkers. Zeolite
imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) is classified as a subclass of MOFs, have
appeared as a novel type of highly porous materials, having similar advantages
of both zeolites and conventional MOFs. By using MOFs as a solid acid catalyst
or catalyst support several reactions have been carried out such as
hydrogenation, oxidation, aldol condensation, knoevenagel condensation,
Suzuki-cross coupling, Friedel-craft alkylation, transesterification reaction
and epoxide ring opening reaction. Researchers mostly focused on to
synthesizing new ZIFs and investigating their applications.

Recently, carbon nanotube from Zeolite
imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) with high surface area, hierarchical pores and
stable frameworks have been known superior characteristics for catalytic
material and support. Metal NPs based N-doped carbon containing heterogenous
catalyst showed enhanced performance because nitrogen with carbon skeleton
result in increasing basicity and hydrophilicity of catalyst which helps to
developing better interaction between aqueous phase and substrate. In recent
studies promoting effect of N-carbon supported metal catalyst have mainly focused
on precious metals but with non-noble metal didn’t get maximum conversion in
mild condition. It is great challenge to check the promoting effect can help to
increase the conversion with non-noble metals in the mild condition.

       
2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (MMP) a novel molecule which have potential
future of biofuel is getting from hydrodeoxygenation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde
(vanillin) which is commonly found in pyrolysis oil. The hydrodeoxygenation of
vanillin always requires high temperature, high pressure and noble metals but
it always form by-product HMP (4-hydroxymethyl-2-methoxyphenol) which is
indication of incomplete hydrogenation of vanillin due to poor catalytic
activity of catalyst. For the HDO of vanillin, we have synthesized Zn-Co CNx
(ZIFs).  Herein, we describe a ZIFs which
is based on metallic Co nanoparticles (NP) and Zn(II) Lewis acid are
infrastructure in ZIFs that can selectively hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin
under relatively mild conditions, 130 °C and
0.7 MPa of H2.
A combination of control experiments and spectroscopic characterization of the
catalyst under relevant reaction conditions points to a synergistic effect between Zn(II) and metallic
Cobalt without formation of a Zn–Co alloy.

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