ENVI 1011 Environmental Science III Global Atmosphere Assignment Due Date: 29th April 2011 Name: Slavica Kandic ID: s3185267 Station: Museum Question 1: Data is supplied for an EPA monitoring station, showing changes in levels of monitored pollutants during a day. You can get a copy of the data for your assigned station from s:ugENVI1011 or the learning hub site for ENVI 1011. ) Describe the location and characteristics of the station b) Display the data on a suitable graph to show the relative changes in each pollutant during the day c) For each pollutant monitored, indicate whether it is a primary or secondary pollutant and briefly describe the method of analysis and health effects. d) Which smog model is appropriate for this data? Explain why each pollutant changes the way it does during the day and how this fits the model. e) Which single pollutant best indicates the extent of air pollution? f) For each pollutant, tabulate (i) the maximum 1 hour level and (ii) the maximum 8-hour average.
Do either exceed acceptable or detrimental levels? Would a day of significant smog be declared? a) Richmond Air Monitoring Station is located on the roof of the Child Care Centre at Lord Street, within residential and light industrial area, on the sampling point of 4 meters. A station is positioned 29m from Lord Street and 30 m from Duke Street. This monitoring site operates as RDAS site from 2nd of October 2000. Monitoring has begun on 3rd of January 1983. Pollutants monitored are Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), while Ozone (O3), Hydrocarbons (HC) and particles are not monitored on this station. (EPA,2011) b) [pic]
Fig. 1 Relative changes in concentration of monitored pollutants over a 24 hour period c)Carbon Monoxide (CO) is primary pollutant as it is formed from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and mostly emmited from the motor vehicles into the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is harmful for both humans and animals because it penetrates through the membrane of the lung tissue,where it binds with haemoglobins which transfer an oxygen to the cells. This process reduces transporting ability of the blood to supply tissues and cells with oxygen which may cause heart disfunction because the strain to preserve the needed level of oxygen in the body.
Detection of CO is made up by Gas Filter Correlation Method which is basicly comparision of the gases in the analyzed sample and absorption of the infra-red spectrum of reference gas being measured. (EPA) Ozone (O3) i a secondary pollutant and major component of the photochemical smog. It is not emmited directly from the source,and is formed by chemical reaction which acts in atmosphere. In the presence of sunlight as a most important contributor,ozone is formed in seres of reactions involving hydrocarbons and NO2. As highly reactive oxidant,ozone can cause irritation to the eyes resulting in watering and itching.
Furthermore,it can lead to the nose irritation causing reduced ability to detect odor, to affect the lower bronchial airways. Bronchitis,astma and hay fever patiences may experience breathing problems. Fortunately,ozone is highly reactive and consequently has no cummulative effect. Ozone is detected by gas phase Chemiluminescence. In this method, a stabile ethylene flow is mixed with the sample in areaction chamber,where reaction among ethylene and ozone occur emmiting light of specific wavelenght. The light released is chopped while photomultiplier tube which is sensitive on light sended as a signal for output. EPA) Nitric Oxide (NO) reffer to primary pollutant as origiates from natural sources such as marine ecosystems, soil,but mostly initiates from human activities such as industry and motor vehicle emission. These activities release heat which oxidise elementary nitrogen. Nitric Oxide has no health effects identified even at high ambient concentrations. Nitric Oxide is detected by chemiluminescence method. (EPA) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is secondary pollutant as it is formed by oxidation of nitric oxide in the atmosphere. Its formation is dependant on the concentration of hydrocarbons and level of solar radiation.
Nitrogen Dioxide could be lethal in extremely high concentrations, eg. emission stacks,,but apart of these extreme ambient conditions,usually cause lung an respiratory disorders such as astma and bronchitis. Nitrogen dioxide is detected by chemiluminescence method. (EPA) Airborne Particle Index (API) are initially primary pollutant as originates from the dust,smoke, and fumes,lead,pollen,sulphates and nitrates,sea salt, microorganisms. On the other hand, particulates such as sulphates and nitrates can react with hydrocarbons to form organic particulates.
These are categorized as seconday pollutants which are responsible for the haze, related to high concentration of oxidants in the atmosphere Health effects of the Airborne Particulates depends on size of the particle which ranges from 1-5µm. Particulates with stated diameter cause the maximum health risk as they penetrates into low airways causing astma or pneumonial failure,while larger particles are easily stopped with musoca in the nose,mouth and nose. For measurement of the Airborne Particulates a Nephelometer is used.
The method is based on measuring the scattering of the aiir smple uing it as an index that is equivalent to local visibility, or conversely as a mass of particulates in the air. (EPA) Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) may be considered as primary pollutant because it is emmited in the environment already oxidized from the combustion of fuels containing sulphur and during the smelting process. Health effects caused by Sulphur Dioxide include irritation of the bronchial mucosa, increased incidence of lung disease and respiratory problems. Measurement method is applied through Pulsed Fluorescence.
It is a system where chamber filled with the sample is focused by filtered UV light. at this excessive energy state, SO2 molecule becomes excited,and also are able to emit A radiation for the detection by a light –sensitive photomultiplier tube which transfer the signal. (EPA) d) Model presented in the graph corresponds to Photochemical Smog Model. As it seen from the graph, Nitric Oxide reaches the highest level at 8 am due to highest vehicle emmision. Its concentration is also high as free radicals did not converted the NO emission into NO2.
Therefore that higher concentration of NO2 are reached at noon, due to reaction of NO with peroxy radicals. At the time (noon)when NO and NO2 achieve equilibrium, ozone begins to form. From that poin, NO2 content starts to decrease due to sink reaction where NO2 reacts with peroxy radical to form nitric acid: NO2+HO+M > HNO3+M Nitrogen dioxide absorbs sunlight splitting and form NO and O. NO2>NO+O Then elementary oxygen react with oxygen atom to form ozone (O3). Ozone concentration appears highest at 3 pm when its concentration starts to decrease until 9pm when ozone in the troposphere is stabilized.
On the other hand,concentration of NOx gradually increase. It could be presented through equation: O3+NO<>NO2 +O As this reaction has either directions ,ozone and NO react to form NO2 and oxygen atom. That is the reason why NOx on the graph has growing trend. ( The concentration of airborne particulates also contributes to the effect of photochemical smog. Graphic demonstrate an increase in the amount of particles at the same time as ozone production reaches its peak. e) The major indicator of urban pollution is ozone. Its production vary upon concentration of VOS’s and NOx in presence of sunlight. f)
Fig. 2, Air quality objectives and maximum levels of polutants at Museum Air Monitoring Station |Pollutant |Unit |Averaging Period |Acceptable Level |Detrimental Level |Maximum levels | |Carbon monoxide |ppm |1 hour |30 |60 |**** | | | |8 hour |10 |20 | | |Ozone |pphm |1 hour |0. 2 |0. 15 |0. 12 | | | |8 hour |0. 05 |0. 08 |0. 08 | |Nitrogen Dioxide |pphm |1 hour |0. 15 |0. 25 |0. 11 | | | |8 hour |0. 06 |0. 15 |0. 6 | |Airborne Particle Index |BSCT |1 hour |2. 35 |**** |2. 00 | | | |24 hour |0. 8 | |0. 8 | |Sulphur Dioxide |pphm |1 hour |0. 17 |0. 34 |0. 01 | | | |24 hours |0. 06 |0. 11 |0. 75 | |Non-methane Hydrocarbons |ppm |1 hour |**** |**** |**** | | | |8 hour | | | | |Total Solar Radiation |w/M? |1 hour |**** |**** |**** | | | |8 hour | | | |
Adopted from Victorian Government Gazzete,(1999), And The Air Monitoring Network EPA and EPA (2006) According to results, a day of significant smog would not be declared. All indicators are in tolerable range, with the exception of Nitrogen Dioxide which exceeds detrimental level on the maximum 8-hour level. However, concentration of both ozone and particulates are in acceptable range. Question 2: The Victorian EPA’s web site (www. epa. vic. gov. au) has extensive information on air quality. Collect data on the same pollutants as Q 1, for the site you have been given data for. Choose a day when pollution seems high.
The data for the current day and hour is displayed in: http://www. epa. vic. gov. au/Air/Bulletins/aqbhour. asp However on this page you can access archived information for any day and hour by clicking on ‘choose…’. Collect data for one full day and graph as in Q. 1. For this data, answer Q. 1(f). You can also find information on the EPA site to help you with Q 1. e. g information on the monitoring sites. Fig. 3 Summary of data from the Richmond Air Monitoring Station, (EPA,2011) [pic] Fig. 4. Air quality objectives and maximum levels of polutants at Richmond Air Monitoring Station Pollutant |Unit |Averaging Period |Acceptable Level |Detrimental Level |Maximum Levels | |Carbon Monoxide |ppm |1 hour |30 |60 |8 | | | |8 hour |10 |20 |12. 5 | |Nitrogen Dioxide |ppm |1 hour |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 37 | | | |8 hour |0. 06 |0. 15 |0. 51 | |Airborne Particle Index |BSCT |1 hour |2. 35 |**** |4. 3 | | | |24 hours |0. 8 | |0. 57 |
According to results, smog alert may be announced due to exceeded detrimental levels of Nitrogen Dioxide and Airborne Particle Index, while Carbon Monoxide ranges within acceptable level. Question 3: Access the National Pollution Inventory (NPI ) home page ( http://www. npi. gov. au )and answer the following:- a) What is the NPI and how does it work? Why was it set up? b) Search for emission data for your postcode. If no emissions are reported try a postcode near you. For reported emissions (i) what is the total load of the emission and (ii) what are the sources of the emissions? ) Choose a substance that is an air pollutant. What information is available on it in this database? What is its Health Hazard rating and NPI rank? Explain how these ranks are calculated. a) National Pollutant Inventory represent online database which is created to inform industry, government and community on the 93 typed of toxic substances and their emission to the environment. Currently 4000 of industrial facilities are required to submit annual report on their emission and that data re available to community through NPI service.
The NPI service is partnership between Australian Government and state and territory governments, based on NPI national Environment Protection Measure in 1998. It is established in order to satisfy community requirements and better availability to provide information related to industrial discharge to local environment. b) My post code is 3058 Coburg, Moreland. The most significant emissions are summarized by facility in Fig. 5 : Fig. 5. Facility sources of emission in the Moreland Council Business name | Facility name and Location |Emitted Substance |Amount of emission in the air | | | | | |(kg) | | |Bega Cheese LTD |Coburg North, VIC |Carbon Monoxide |330 | | | | |Sulphur dioxide |14 | | | | |T VOC’s |73 | | | | |PAH’S |0. 0079 | | | | |NOx’s |2,200 | | |C A Group Australasia P/L |Consolidated Alloys ,Coburg, |Lead compounds |0. 2 | | | |VIC | | | | |Cryovac Aust P/L |Cryovac Australia P/L, Fawkner,|Ethyl Acetate |97,000 | | | |VIC | | | | | | |Ethanol |120,000 | | | | |T VOC’s |320,000 | | | | Carbon Monoxide |6,400 | | | | |Sulphur Dioxide |40 | | |Flocast Aust P/L |Flocast Aust P/L, Coburg ,VIC |Lead & compounds |0. 027 | | | | |Nickel & comp, |0. 014 | | | | |Zinc & comp. |0. 27 | | | | |Copper & comp. |0. 71 | | |VISY Packaging P/L |VISYPAK, Coburg, Vic |Xylenes |4,600 | | | | |T VOC’s |120,000 | | | | |Mercury & compounds |0. 015 | | | | |Cadmium & comp. |0. 64 | | | | |Lead and comp. |0. 029 | | Most of the sources are food processing facilities and small manufactures. c) Chosen substance is benzene. There are available data for reported years : 2005/2006—1,500,000 kg of benzene emitted 2006/2007—930,000 kg 2007/2008—780,000 kg 2008/2009—660,000 kg 2009/2010—610,000 kg Concentration of benzene follows declining trend over the five years. Sources and amount of emitted pollutant are summarized in Fig. 6 Fig. 6, Sources of Benzene emission in Moreland Council Source |Air (kg) | |Motor Vehicles |68,000 | |Domestic burning of solid fuel |9,400 | |Lawn Mowing |5,000 | |Service stations |3,900 | |Print shops, Graphic Art |850 | |Barbeques |790 | |Fuel combustion |560 | |Aeroplanes |56 | |Landfill |45 | |Lawn Mowing (open public spaces) |27 | |Railways |2. 2 | |Domestic gaseous fuel burning |2. 1 | |Cutback Bitumen |0. 8 | |Domestic liquid fuel burning |0. 0075 | By clicking on highlighted source of pollution, under “diffuse data” are listed: – Number of air sheds with No. of substances emitted – Number of catchments with No. of substances emitted Question 4: a) Write a summary of arguments AGAINST global warming In spite of increasing scientific evidence that indicate anthropogenic influence on global warming, countless nonconformists trust that the cause of global warming is not based upon human activities.
The main misconceptions about global warming phenomenon are numerous, but mostly disseminated will be presented in this expose. Some sceptics claim that the reason for the global warming occurrence originates from the sun. According to BBC News, (2004), analysis performed by scientists at the Institute of Astronomy in Zurich conclude that the number of sunspots on the Sun appeared at the same time when rise of the temperature on the Earth is identified . On the other hand, Solanki and Krivova (2003) debates taking empirical approach based on proxies and old records to demonstrate how time series changes over the period 1856 to1970, concluding that input of solar energy to atmosphere is great on this timescale.
Therefore given results are compared with records for the period of 1970-1999, which showed significant influence no bigger than 30% of the sun on the global climate. Marchitto et al (2010) also follows the theory that solar irradiance over past 11 years experienced a change of less than 0. 1 %, while more significant changes in ultraviolet wavelength may have an impact on concentration of stratospheric ozone thus inducing changes in troposphere movement. Although this research noticed that overall irradiance has an impact on the El Nino- southern oscillation. An analysis on the Little Ice Age (from 1400-1850 AD) derived opinion that the solar energy is esponsible for the ‘ocean dynamical thermostat” that distress climate over the world. Most of the septic arguments are based on fact that CO2 human emission and burning of fossil fuels does not contribute seriously to global warming. There are vast of attempts to demonstrate wrong interpretation of global warming by IPCC. The fundamental of the Antropogenic Global Warming is based on effect of CO2 which obstruct the escape of IR radiation which consequently warming the atmosphere. (Gero,Turner,2011)They found that reflecting back IR radiation in last 14 years period actually decreasing, causing negative feedback on water vapour. In addition, Lammertsma et al. 2011) conclude that plants absorb more CO2 and release less water vapour. That result in reduction in atmospheric vapour as plants had experienced adaptation to greater amount of CO2 causing actually ”negative feedback ’’Some AGW sceptics also claim that the Earth is actually cooling. According to NOA/NCDC data, for the 10 years period finishing up with March 2010, the cooling tendency increased to 12. 9? F per century (NOAA climate data, 2011) and that March 2011 was the coldest in last 117 years. I was personally surprised how many different observations are made and how such a great effort is given to oppose Anthropogenic Global Warming theory.
Some aspects of the sceptic point of view may be described as bizarre. One of these theories accuses the nitrogen-fixing legume Pueraria montana, commonly known as kudzu which as its spread may increase level of atmospheric ozone by rising nitric oxide from soils by 100%. It was excessively used in Japan, USA as an ornamental plant and a forage crop. (Hoffman, 2010) It is interesting point of view that amount of ice on Antarctica is currently highest since measurements are established. Michaels (2008) explains that appearance due to low temperatures which does not allow rainfall. Furthermore, there is opinion that hurricanes have nothing to do with global warming.
As Bedard (2009) state, storms are not more recurrent and extreme than they have been since 1850, and that current AGW is propaganda. However, if ten different skeptics are asked for an opinion, each will have different opinion, sometimes deliberately contrary to the official scientific stance, but definitely stimulating for further scientific analysis. – OR – (b) Discuss the impact of Chaos Theory on weather predicting and climate modelling Resources 1. ‘Greenhouse: an Ill-conceived Alarm”, B. Tucker (JH) 2. “The Greenhouse Conspiracy” – video 551. 5525 (library) 3. “Chaos Theory” Beyond 2000 video (JH) 4. “Hasn’t the Weather Been Strange Lately? article (JH) 5. Four Corners program 26/2/2007 (JH) References: EPA, 2011, Richmond Air Monitoring Station, viewed 19 April, 2011, http://www. epa. vic. gov. au/air/aq4kids/station_details. asp? SiteId=10117&SiteName=Richmond EPA, Air Monitoring Network, viewed 15 April 2011, https://lms. rmit. edu. au/webapps/portal/frameset. jsp? url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_86889_1 EPA Information Bulletin, 1997, Air Monitoring Data 1992-1995 Publication 585 October 1997, view 16 April 2011, http://epanote2. epa. vic. gov. au/EPA/publications. nsf/2f1c2625731746aa4a256ce90001cbb5/8987175036cf54eb4a2565fc0008e5c7/$FILE/585. pdf
Feather River, 2011, Air Quality Management District, The Physics and Chemistry of Ozone, viewed 20 April 2011, http://www. fraqmd. org/OzoneChemistry. htm Victorian Government Gazzete, 1999, Environment Protection Act 1970, State Environment protection Policy (Ambient air Quality), viewed 20 April 2011, http://www. gazette. vic. gov. au/gazette/Gazettes1999/GG1999S019. pdf EPA, 2006, Air Quality Index, viewed 21 April 2011, http://www. epa. vic. gov. au/air/bulletins/aqindex. asp BBC NEWS, 2004, Dr David Whitehouse, Sunspots reaching 1,000- year high, viewed 2222 April 2011,http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/science/nature/3869753. stm S. K. Solanki and N. A. Krivova, 2003, Can solar variability explain global warming since 1970? Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, viewed 22 April 2011, http://www. mps. mpg. de/homes/natalie/PAPERS/warming. pdf Marchitto, T, Muscheler,R, Ortiz,J, Carriquiry, J, van Green, A, 2010, Dynamical Response of the Tropical Pacific Ocean to Solar Forcing During the Early Holocene, Science 3 December 2010, Vol. 330 no. 6009pp 1378-1381, DOI:10. 1126/science. 1194887, viewed 22 April 2011 http://www. sciencemag. org/content/330/6009/1378. fullA Gero,J, Turner,D,2011, Long-Term Trends in Downwelling Spectral Infrared Radiance over the U. S. Southern Great Plains,Journal of Climate 2011; e-view, doi: 10. 1175/2011JCLI4210. ,viewed 23 April 2011, http://journals. ametsoc. org/doi/abs/10. 1175/2011JCLI4210. 1 Lammertsma, E, Jan de Boer, H, Dekker ,S, Dilcher , D, Lotter, A, Wagner-Cremer, F, 2011, Global CO2 rise leads to reduced maximum stomatal conductance in Florida vegetation,doi:10. 1073/pnas. 110371108, viewed 23 April 2011,http://www. pnas. org/content/early/2011/02/16/1100371108. abstract US Climate at a Glance, NOAA climate data, viewed 23 April 2011, http://www. ncdc. noaa. gov/oa/climate/research/cag3/cag3. html Hoffman, D, 2010, The Resilient Earth, Kudzu Causes global Warming, viewed 23 April 2011, http://www. theresilientearth. com/? q=content/kudzu-causes-global-warming