Goleman presented the intellection of emotional intelligence (2000b) with four major department which farther constitute into 20 competences.
•Self-awareness that composed of three competencies: emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment and self-confidence. It is defined as ability to understand the association between motivation, internal drives, mood and emotions. Self-awareness is an acute sense or ability to observe, monitor and keep in check one’s emotional state.
•Self-management that involves six competencies: self-control, trustworthiness, conscientiousness, adaptability, achievement drive and initiatives. Self-regulation is a form of discipline. As explained by Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden, and Dornheim (1998) it involves managing one’s negative emotions and damaging impulses and accepting and adapting to change in a constructive manner.
•Social awareness that include three competencies: empathy, organizational Awareness and Service Orientation. This aspect of emotional maturity is represented in one’s ability to put themselves in other’s shoes and understand how they feel in different situation.•Relationship Management that includes eight competencies: developing others, influence, communication, conflict management, leadership change catalyst, building bonds and teamwork and collaboration. It is the ability to manage relationships, build rapport and develop social networks are the hall marks of relationship management.The contribution of Goleman to the field of Emotional Intelligence are phenomenon.
It is because Goleman popularized the theory and communicated it to a wider audiences (Goleman, 1998). The 1990 model of Mayer and Solvey is the first emotional intelligence formal model and is known as the “Ability Model of El”. This model define emotional intelligence in the sense of traditions. That the emotional intelligence is the managing of emotion through the mental abilities and utilizing that emotional information and contribute to, logical thought and intelligence in general.
Hierarchically arranged these abilities from basic to complex psychological processes. And with the age the thoughts developed as abilities. The four areas of emotional intelligence described the areas of abilities or skills (Mayer and Salovey, 1997). The authors of the model called them the ‘four branches’ of emotional intelligence (Cox and Nelson, 2008)It is the first component that emphasized on skills which usually focuses on emotional requirement of other individuals. The ability to differentiate among honest and dishonest expression is also included in emotional perception. The basic and initial level of emotional intelligence is manifested in the no verbal expression. Sen, Nelson and Surya (2009) stated that non-verbal emotional perception and expression are also present in human infants who are otherwise unable to read, write or speak coherently. The skill required to differentiate between the diverse feelings and to recognize the emotions.
This level of EI relates to employing emotion to facilitate human thought processes. Emotional intelligence facilitates direct thinking towards important matters as indicated in the research by Farina (2007).This branch revealed the ability to comprehend complex feelings from one individual to other individual. Researchers and theorists state that the emotion convey information in a powerful way.
So, whereas happiness conveys a desire to interact socially, anger might indicate an impulse to harm oneself or others.The ability to attach or separate from an emotion, relaying on the usefulness in a given situation. This level is based on a person’s need to apply the various emotion towards one self or others under a voluntary control, regulating and managing emotions is an important part of overall emotional maturity.
Above models of emotional intelligence have explained different aspects of emotional intelligence which can be assessed by Schutte emotional intelligence scale. Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, is based on Salovey and Mayer?s (1990) original model of emotional intelligence. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2004) refined their 1990 model, but the basic characteristics of emotional intelligence suggested in the newer model persist similar to those of the 1990 model. Figure 1.1 relationship of emotional intelligence and loneliness-Proposed theoretical framework, is based on the subscales of Schutte Emotional Intelligence which is linked to Loneliness.
Emotional intelligence is one of the factor that contributes to loneliness, based on Margaret Paul’s article.There are four factors that contribute to emotional intelligence. The first factor is that of the perception of emotions. It includes ability to recognize and identify the emotions of self and others.
It includes both verbal and non-verbal cues. Managing emotions in the self is another category of emotional intelligence which includes ability of a person to regulate and manage the emotion of the self and respond to the emotions according to the situation. Social skill factor includes a competent ability to communicate and interact with each other. Another category of emotional intelligence is utilizing emotions which facilitates thinking and give awareness of physical sensation. The way we use and perceive emotions are linked with the way we interact with each other and with feeling of loneliness. According to Zysberg (2012), The potential associations of loneliness with Emotional Intelligence (EI), a pair of its correlates (life satisfaction and a way of meaning), and several other background variables were tested Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis provided support for the model, suggesting that the presence of EI, and size and availableness of somebody’s social network area unit the strongest correlates of loneliness.There are many other factors that contribute to loneliness. According to Margaret Paul (2016), there are five main factors of loneliness in which emotional intelligence is the first factor that contributes to loneliness.
People connect with each other at common level of emotional health. The low the emotional growth is the more you will fell disconnected to your family and friends. Intellectual quotient is the second factor that contributes to loneliness or isolation.
People with high intelligence face difficulty in connecting with the low intelligence people because they find it difficult to make other understand their way of thinking. It make them feel different and uncomfortable in many social situations. The third factor that contribute to loneliness is Affluence. Affluence can cause isolation from social interaction because it’s difficult to connect with the people who have unequal level of wealth. To interact with the people it is necessary to understand their challenges and their life style. Living situations is another factor that cause loneliness, in small communities there is more opportunities of interaction with each other and less chances of feeling lonely.
People living in big city find less chances of interaction with their family members. Families are divided and living far away from each other which raise feelings of isolation. Fifth factor that contribute to loneliness is Social anxiety and fear of rejection.
Rejection resulting from abuse or neglect leads to social anxiety. People with social anxiety feel less connected to others and prefer loneliness due to their fear of rejection. Shyness is another factor that can be a link between emotional intelligence and Loneliness. According to American Psychological Association, shyness is the feeling of tension, worry or awkwardness during social interactions, mostly when surrounded by people who are not known to them. Severely shyness can also appear through have physical symptoms such as blushing, sweating or a pounding heart.
Shyness is related to an inclination to withdraw from social interactions.Mehrabian and Stefl (1995) found that the higher feelings of loneliness is associated with the higher feelings of shyness which means loneliness is positively correlated with the shyness. There are other personality characteristics as well that contribute to shyness. Nevertheless, this correlational study does not show any causal relationship between two shyness and loneliness.