Group the intermembrane space, diffuses over the inner

Group I2: Sara Rydeholm,
Peter Enberg

5/12- 2017



Cell respiration

1.       When the culture medium (Cm) was
added to the Clark reaction vessel the graph displayed a straight linear graph
and the oxygen concentration was constant. When the solution of blood cells was
added the oxygen, level began to decrease. After DNP was added the oxygen
concentration proceeded to decrease more rapidly and the graph subsequently
became steeper. When KCN was added the graph became linear and the oxygen-concentration
remained constant.

2.       SR1 


3.       2,4-DNP is a fat-soluble molecule
which consequently can diffuse over the membrane of cell organelles. In the
mitochondria, 2,4-DNP binds hydrogen in the intermembrane space, diffuses over
the inner membrane to the matrix of the mitochondria. This causes a decrease in the proton gradient
over the membrane necessary for electron transport and ATP-synthase. Moreover,
the electron transports chains effectiveness will decline which means the rate
of electrons transported will decrease. This causes less ATP to be generated, instead
more energy will be released as heat.
When the mitochondria are exposed to KCN the cyanide will react with the iron
in the hem-group of the cytochrome c which is responsible for the electron transport
from complex 3 to complex 4. This causes a blockage in the electron transport
chain. This consequently stops the transportation of electrons and ATP cannot
be produced.

4.       When 2,4-DNP is present in the human
body, the rate and effectiveness of the electron transport chain will decline
meaning fewer ATP molecules will be generated. The cells compensate this lack
of energy by burning more alternative energy sources, such as fat. The energy
lost in the electron transport chain will instead be released as heat, raising
the body temperature and further increasing the metabolism. This is why 2,4-DNP
can be used as a weigh loss drug.

5.       The blood was diluted with a factor
of 200 and was applied on a cell counting chamber. Then the cells were counted using
a microscope. 4 large squares were inspected and the number of white blood
cells was 33, 33, 30 and 29. Moreover, each large square had an average of 31,5 cells and a volume of
0,1 µl. Per milliliter the cell count would therefore be 31.25 times
10 000, which equals 312 500 white blood cells per ml. When taking
into account the dilution factor of 200 the total cell count per ml undiluted
solution will be 312 500 times 200, which equals 62 500 000
white blood cells per ml.


det inte en del info här? (KCN ser bra ut.)