How political trends vary on qualifying or choosing political leaders affects the political climate?
Philippine Election History
Before the Spaniards came, Philippines had a government called the Barangay System headed by the Datu’s. Election was not a popular that day, but the people have unity. If there is something they need to decide, the council of elders talk about it and the citizens follow the decision of the elders. If the decision of elders was popular long ago, when was the election became popular/trend? As defined by (Gibbins, Eulau, ; Webb, n.d.), election is the formal process of selecting a person for public office or of accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting. As stated in (ESSAYS WRITERS, n.d.), Hawkesworth ; Kogan (2004) says that elections provide a legitimate means of making political choices and therefore for an election to be effective voters should have a free and genuine choice between at least alternatives. ‘Elections are integral to democratic governance. Through the mechanism of elections, politicians are held accountable for their actions, and are compelled to introduce policies that are reflective of and responsive to public opinion’ (Teehankee). Ideally in the book of (Heywood, 2000)elections serve as a ‘major source of political recruitment, a means of making government, and of transferring government power, a guarantee of representation, and a major determinant of government policy’.
The use of elections in the modern world originated from the gradual emergence of representative government in Europe and North America in the 17th century. The election in the Philippines only started after building the First Republic of the Philippines under Malolos Constitution. However, male members of the rich classes or the Illustrado’s can only vote at that time. For example, Emilio Aguinaldo was the first president of the first Philippine Republic on the 23th day of June 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan. In short, it was not the mass who voted Aguinaldo but only the rich people.
‘After establishing total control of the Philippines by 1901, the American colonizers governed their newly acquired territory through the appointive Philippine Commission under the supervision of the United States governor general. The commission performed both executive and legislative functions, with token Filipino participation, until 1907. Soon after, the Americans introduced elections to allow greater participation of the Filipino elite in colonial governance’ (Teehankee). The voters need to be male and no women, a resident of the municipality for 6 months, those who acquire/own real property and those who can read and write English/ Spanish. With this custom, the elites won the election. Taking a cue from the elite experience at limited municipal elections during the last days of Spanish colonial rule, the American colonial government proceeded to lay down the foundation for municipal, provincial and national elections (Paredes, 1989). Initially, the Americans conducted municipal elections in areas pacified under military rule. The first election in the country was held in Baliwag, Bulacan on May 1898 under American supervision. This was followed by four Cavite municipalities, in compliance with General Order No. 40, Series of 1900, issued by the military governor, for establishing municipalities in the Philippine Islands. The military government first granted wide rights of suffrage but later limited the franchise (Teehankee). On July 30, 1907, the first legislative election was administered under the first General Election Law of the Philippines (Act No. 1532) which was enacted on 9th day of January 1907. At that time, the Philippine party politics was characterized by clientelist interactions between the Filipino politicians and their American colonial patrons. ‘The measure of success for an American colonial official was their ability to cultivate and manipulate effective local clients in implementing American policies. Thus, electoral campaigns were neither venues for the discussion of social issues nor mass appeals for voters, but negotiations between national political personalities and the provincial landowning elites’ (Teehankee).
Since independence in 1898 and the ratification of the Philippine Constitution in the First Republic, there have been 15 presidents. Starting with General Emilio Aguinaldo all the way to current president Rodrigo Duterte.
1. Emilio Aguinaldo was first (and only) president of the First Republic (Malolo Republic). He signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, creating a truce between the Spanish and Philippine revolutionaries. He was known as the President of the Revolutionary Government and led the Philippines in the Spanish-Philippine War and the American-Philippine War.
2. Manuel L. Quezon was elected president of the newly formulated Commonwealth on Sept. 17, 1935. President Quezon was known as the Father of the National Language. President Quezon’s legacy is in the core of the Filipino people, who cherish a tradition of hospitality and solidarity with refugees. He was elected because of his programs.
3. Sergio Osmena became the second President of the Philippine Commonwealth after President Quezon died because of tuberculosis. He was a distinguished statesman. He led the country in its initial stage of political maturation by his honest and selfless devotion to public service.
4. Manuel A. Roxas administration was marred by graft and corruption. It was at this time when the parity Amendment was approved which would ‘place American nationals on a parity with Filipino citizens insofar as the right to exploit the nation’s natural resources and operate public utilities concerned’ (Lichauco, 1993). Voters are being harmed or abused just to get the number of votes.
5. Jose P. Laurel is the third president of the Philippines. He was one of the most controversial politicians during his time. He was labeled as a collaborator, others think He was a hero, and others say He is a traitor.
6. Elpidio Quirino was a corrupt president and he was also closely tied with the American government. He tarnished the presidential history because he was the first president to undergo an impeachment trial.
7. Ramon Magsaysay remained a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He was knows as the savior of democracy and man of the masses.
8. Carlos P. Garcia maintained the strong traditional ties with the United States and sought closer relations with noncommunist Asian countries. He was the one who implemented the Filipino first policy, austerity program and cultural revival.
9. Diosdado Macapagal initiated Land reform for the farmers. He was in favor of foreign investments.
Our main problem here is how political trends vary on qualifying or choosing political leaders affects the political climate? We want to know how and why voters, or the constituents choose or vote their political leaders and how it will affect the quality government over time. So how do voters choose their candidate? First factor is the popularity of a candidate or being celebrity or endorsed by a celebrity. Second, Endorsement of traditional network and organizations such as family, the church, the groups and group leaders. Next is the characteristics that can be of benefit to the voter. Fourth is the Party Program and last one is the Political machinery which includes the political party, being in the opposition, and good campaign strategies. ‘The conduct of elections is made complex by the practices and values, which in turn are reflective of the behavior and attitudes of the electorate and politicians and of the actual practices before, during and after elections. Furthermore, voter behavior reflects the personalistic and patronage orientation of traditional Filipino politics or “trapo”. For the poor, giving their support to a candidate is seen as an investment so that they can depend on the politician for help. Election fraud is sometimes employed in order to win the elections. Instances of cheating range from use of flying voters, registration of disqualified voters, vote-buying, ballot and ballot box switching, padding of votes through dagdag bawas and other forms, tampering canvass of votes. These practices become more detrimental to candidates who have neither the financial nor political machinery to guard the integrity of the votes and election results’.
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elections_in_the_Philippines#History
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://iper.org.ph/documentation/Chapter%2001-09.pdf
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. . (n.d.). Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Manuel-Quezon
ESSAYS WRITERS. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://essayswriters.com/essays/Description/election.html
Gibbins, R., Eulau, H., & Webb, P. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from Election Political Science: https://www.britannica.com/topic/election-political-science
Heywood, A. (2000). Key Concepts in Politics. London: Macmillan Press.
Jose P. Laurel: A “Hero” or a “Traitor”? . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ourhappyschool.com/debate/jose-p-laurel-hero-or-traitor
Lichauco, A. (1993). The Philippine Crisis. Makati: St Pauls-Press.
Paredes, R. R. (1989). Philippine Colonial Democracy. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Philippine Presidents. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://bloomspresidents.wordpress.com/elpido-r-quirino/
Presidents of the Philippines: Their Achievements and Contributions. (2016, March 9). Retrieved from https://soapboxie.com/world-politics/Presidents-of-the-Philippines-and-their-Achievements-and-Contributions
Teehankee, J. (n.d.). Electoral Politics in the Philippines. Retrieved April 4, 2018, from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/01361006.pdf
Your Vote our future a module for citizen-voter education. (n.d.). Retrieved from Institute for Political and Electorall Reform: http://iper.org.ph/documentation/module.pdf
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