Identify technology, new forms of oral communication continue

Identify and explain any four elements of oral-communication process, showing how each of the elements can be affected by noise. Suggest ways of reducing noise. DEFINITION OF TERMS Oral According to, Jessica Bell (2017) of or relating to the mouth. Used in or taken through the mouth Communication According to Jessica Bell (2017), is the act of transferring information from one place to another. Although this is a simple definition, when we think about how we may communicate the subject becomes a lot more complex. Noise According to Jason E. Norris, (2016), is any type of disruption that interferes with the transmission or interpretation of information from the sender to the receiver. INTRODUCTION Oral communicationas the process of verbally transmitting information and ideas from one individual or group to another can be either formal or informal. Informally, oral communication includes face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations and even discussions that take place at business meetings. Whereas formal types of oral communication may include, presentations at business meetings, classroom lectures and commencement speeches given at a graduation ceremony. However, with advances in technology, new forms of oral communication continue to develop. Video phones and video conferences combine audio and video so that workers in distant locations can both see and speak with each other. With all this there are hindering factors such as noise which interferes with communication in the form of physical, physiological, psychological, and semantic. BODY/DETAILS According to, Jessica bell (2017), communication is far more than just the words that come out of your mouth. It involves an intricate web of cues woven together to tell others what you really mean when you say something. She highlighted that word choice, body language, tone, good listening are the elements of effective oral communication. On word choice, Jessica bell (2017), highlighted that some people are naturally more eloquent than others and seem to always have the right words to say in any given situation. If youre not blessed with the ability to speak off the cuff, you can improve upon this skill with practice. If you need to communicate an important message verbally, schedule a time to do it, and then practice what you intend to say by writing it down first. Make sure that you have effectively gotten your message across by asking the person with whom youre communicating to paraphrase what youve just told him. You can also greatly improve your word arsenal by becoming an avid reader. According to, Jessica bell (2017), body language is a powerful tool for communicating messages that includes all nonverbal cues used during communication, such as eye contact, posture, gestures and facial expressions. Body language can be far more powerful than spoken words. Jessica bell (2017), cited on the impact of body language over verbal communication, and concluded that body language accounts for 55 percent of communication. Thus therefore, one has to ensure that a message is communicated properly by making sure that the body and mouth are on the same page when one speaks. The tone of your voice helps convey your attitude and emotions during communication. Tone includes vocal inflections and word choice, and when improperly used, can confuse your audience or end up sending an unintended message. For example, according to, Jessica bell (2017), an apology offered with a snappy Im sorry is very different from one that utilizes a warm, soft voice and conveys genuine emotion by explaining the reason for the apology. According to, Tarnoczy, (1965), it may sound contradictory, but an important part of being an effective communicator is simultaneously being a great listener. Communication is a two-way street that involves both relaying your own messages and understanding the messages of others. Become a good listener by focusing intently on the words someone is communicating. Make eye contact and nod to indicate you understand, or ask questions once he is finished if there are things you are unclear about. Dont interrupt, and dont allow outside distractions to draw your attention away from your speaker. However, according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris,(2016), hindering factors such as noise which interferes with communication in the form of physical, physiological, psychological, and semantic were cited as a problem in the sense that physical noise is interference that isexternalto both speaker and listener and it hampers the physical transmission of the signal or message. The examples of physical noise are highlighted as, loud party at the neighbors while youre trying to record, loud kids who dont want to take their nap and even irritating hum of your computer, air conditioner, or heater. HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris,(2016), also identified physiological noise as created by barriers within the sender or receiver such as articulation problems, mumbling, talking too fast, talking too slow, forgetting to pause and even forgetting to breathe. An example of physiological noise on the listeners side may thus include hearing problems. Maybe the listener cant hear high tones as clearly as they used to. For some, low tones are the problem. Their difficulty in literally hearing words and sounds becomes physiological noise. Psychological noise was highlighted by HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), as mental interferencein the speaker or listener. Three examples of psychological noise are wandering thoughts, preconceived ideas, and sarcasm. Wandering thoughts according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), can be a kind of psychological noise. This is primarily a listener problem. If youre trying to communicate a concept in your podcast, wandering thoughts is an obstacle because your listener may be distracted and have difficulty keeping up with you. This is often a problem when talking about abstract ideas. Sometimes as podcasters,wecause a listeners thoughts to wander, especially if we talk too fast, too slow, or fail to pause. But occasionally , according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris,(2016), wandering thoughts can be a podcaster problem in the sense that one started talking about one point only to find him or herself lost talking about something completely unrelated. Thus, it takes a lot of concentration and maybe planning, to stay focused. Another type of psychological noise, according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), is when people think they already know something. That noise interferes with a listeners willingness to hear a new perspective. Other preconceived ideas include biases, prejudices, presuppositions, and closed-mindedness. When there is psychological noise like this, you have to work harder than usual to make sure youre communicating clearly. According to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), sarcasm can be a kind of psychological noise if you dont care to actually persuade someone to see things your way, then sarcasm is the easy way. Sarcasm is noise to your listener unless your listener already agrees with you. If your listener disagrees with you, then sarcasm guarantees they wont pay attention to your message. Sarcasm can also rile them up. Finally, there is another type of noise that appears to be psychological, but its actually linguistic and deserves its own category, as highlighted by, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016). Semantic noise is interference created when the speaker and listener have different meaning systems. Maybe when I use a word, you have a slightly different meaning in mind. This can cause confusion. Jargon is a fantastic linguistic shortcut. But according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), if everyone listening agrees and understands the terminology, and then jargon makes communication quicker and clearer. However, I think if listeners have different definitions of the terminology, then jargon becomes noise. This is especially noisy to people outside your particular job or field. HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016), also indicated that abstract ideas can be semantic noise in the sense that when your words and sentences are nebulous or ambiguous. Hence, some people find it almost impossible to speak concretely. This is a problem most people have, which is one reason people need to write even when podcasting. But even when one has written, sometimes they discover their words were not concrete enough. Thus therefore ones own semantic noise has interfered with the communication. However, according to, HYPERLINK https// Jason e. Norris, (2016), all communication contains noise. You cant get rid of the noise for every person who listens to you, but you can work to reduce the noise through, making your language more precise by choosing words that you know will be understood by your listeners. Practice speaking. Practice articulating. Practice using your recording and editing tools. Invite feedback since sometimes listeners hesitate before they respond. Once you start hearing from your listeners, you can begin to tweak your message so it becomes clearer and better understood. CONCLUSION Communication may be defined as a process concerning exchange of facts or ideas between persons holding different positions in an organization to achieve mutual harmony. The communication process is dynamic in nature rather than a static phenomenon. Human communication is interpersonal, purposive and is a process. The sender also known as the encoder decides on the message to be sent and the best or most effective way that it can be sent. In oral communication, there is a greater chance of misunderstanding due to the verbal nature of exchange. But, the speaker has more chances of winning over the other person to his/her point of view despite the effects of noise. REFERENCE HYPERLINK https// Jason E. Norris, (2016). 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