In contrastive textology, there are two linguistic disciplines called ascontrastive analysis and contrastive linguistic.
This paper will focus oncontrastive linguistic that has close connection with translation studiesbefore there are no corpora and the connection between both disciplines after corpora are found. Corpora contain manyaccurate samples of the language. The importance of corpora lies in the fact that they reveal patterns of language usage which `would not be easily detected otherwise, since “the language looks ratherdifferent if we look at a lot of it at once” (Sinclair 1991:100). Before discussing about the relationship between both disciplines withcorpora, we must know first the notion of contrastive linguistic andtranslation studies. According to some experts, the teaching of language isbased on some principles and one of the most important principles iscontrastive linguistic. According to an expert, contrastive linguistic isdefined as “the systematic synchronic study of similarities and differences inthe structure and use of two or more language varieties, carried out fortheoretical or practical purposes.” (Bugarski 1991:77). Contrastive linguisticcontrasts two language levels having aims to examine the aspects of differencesbetween both language levels and to identify the difficulties caused by thedifferences.
Whereas according to Holmes (1988b/2004: 181), translation studies isdefined as the complex of problems clustered round the phenomenon oftranslating and translations.’ Commonly, translation studies is the academicdiscipline that is related to the study of the theoryand phenomena of translation. From the mid-1950s, there had been an interest that grows in analyzing the translation process from differentperspectives, especially linguistic ones, but no clear-cut approachhad yet been put forward to integrate all the different aspects playing a rolein the translation process.
Thus, translation isconsidered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastivelinguistic or interlanguage studies.After knowing the notions ofcontrastive linguistic and translation studies, we could know the connection between bothdisciplines before there is no corpus. Languageand linguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Contrastive linguisticand translation studies are also included to applied linguistics in particular. Bothdisciplines have a similarity that is bothdisciplines discuss about two languages at the same time. Both also have close relationship to the point of having been consideredone and the same thing. Most contrastive linguists consider that translation as a means of establishing the relationships of cross-linguistic.
James has stated that “translationequivalence, of this rather rigorously defined sort including interpersonaland textual as well as ideational meaning is the best available TC tertiumcomparationis for CA contrastive analysis.” (James 1980:178). There are also some theories about the connection betweencontrastive linguistic and translation studies given by Halliday, Bausch, Raabe, and Kühlwein et al.
Contrastive linguistics is the theoryand method used to compare the working of different languages. Since translation can be considered as a special case of this kind of comparison,comparative descriptive linguistics includes the theory of translation (Hallidayet al. 1964:112). The interests that are related to contrastive linguistic and translation have led to a significant amount ofliterature on the relationship between the two disciplines from a very earlystage (Bausch 1972; Raabe 1972; Kühlwein et al. 1981), before computer corporabecome widely available in language research. There are two issues that become the focus of theearly perspectives of this connection. Thefirst is the usefulness of translation equivalence.
It is the only valid tertium comparationis (TC) for a successful contrastive analysis. The second is the results application of a contrastive analysis indifferent translation studies aspects. Ivirpoints out that “Translation can serve as a tool of contrastive analysis, while thefindings of contrastive analysis may – in addition to their other practicalapplications – be applied in the training of translators, preparation oftranslation manuals, and, most importantly perhaps, in constructing a theory oftranslation.” (Ivir, 1981:209).Then, this paper will discuss about the connection between bothdisciplines, contrastive linguistic and translationstudies, with corpus. Corpora,especially electronic corpora, playthe important role in both disciplines. A corpus provides many real examples of one structure and the same structure.
In the beginningof the 1990s, translation studies has used electronic corpora. According to Laviosa,”the corpus-based approach is evolving, through theoretical elaboration andempirical realization, into a coherent, composite and rich paradigm thataddresses a variety of issues pertaining to theory, description, and thepractice of translation.” (Laviosa 1998:1).Translation becomes the main interest for contrastive linguistic. It is as opposed to previous works that focus mainly on the teaching of foreign language. On the other hand, the focus of translation studies on real translations needs some types or other of cross-linguisticanalysis facilitated by the use of corpora. Withoutconsidering translation as its application, corpus-based contrastivelinguistic can still exist.
Whereas any type of approach to translation from a descriptivecorpus-based perspective must consider some types of contrastive aspect.Translation cannot well exist without the presence of contrastive linguistic. Theprevious contrastive analyses play the important role for translation studies.
No study into translation can be done by ignoring previous contrastive analyses. Contrastive linguistic becomes a basic ingredient of translation studies. In recent years, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies showa parallel development. It is accompanied by a clear shift from theperspectives of theoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that aresupported by language corpora called translatio-oriented contrastivelinguistic. The focus of translationstudies is on real texts that are translated and their originals has made itunavoidable to use analyses of a contrastive type. In conclusion, contrastive linguistic and translation studies have theirown aims in language teaching. Contrastive linguistic has an aim to obtain theknowledge about two different languages on a basis of descriptive because itbasically refers to descriptive linguistic. While translation studies aims toget knowledge about the actual translation process between two differentlanguages.
Besides, contrastive linguistic concerns on more general basis. While translation studies contrasts between twolanguages on specialized basis. Bothdisciplines have a similarity to focus on two language at the same time. Contrastive linguistic and translationstudies have close connection. Language andlinguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Both are also related to applied linguistics in particular.
Translationis considered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastivelinguistic or interlanguage studies.Contrastive linguistic and translation studies also have a closerelationship with corpus. Electronic corpora have an important role in both disciplines. In recentyears, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies show a paralleldevelopment that is accompanied by a clear shift from the perspectives oftheoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that are supported by languagecorpora called translatio-oriented contrastive linguistic. Corpus gives an important progress in contrastivelinguistic and translation studies. Corpus also gives a big influence in other disciplines and in their relationships.