In to discuss the consequences of the

In this assignment it will
be containing a range of information which is all related to under 18
conception. It will be discussing why Sunderland has such a high prevalence of
under 18 conception compared to other areas, the differences from the local number
count and the England number count and how close Sunderland is to the worse
value in England. It will then go on to discuss the consequences of the higher
under 18 conception in terms of the individual’s health but also the
consequence it has on the region. In will then start to discuss the health
promotion strategy which fits best with this domain and the health promotion
which I will be talking about is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in this
section it will contain a briefing of the theory, how it works and the
advantages of it. It will then talk about any limitations it may have and
recognise that there will be a group of people which this strategy will not
work with.

Sunderland’s disease prevalence of under 18 conception

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Sunderland have always had
such a high prevalence in under 18 conceptions. In the year 1998, roughly 357
girls fell pregnant throughout the year who were aged 18 or under, this was the
city’s highest conception rate (Ward, 2015). Throughout the years, the number
of girls falling pregnant had decreased by almost 200 people, in 2014 the total
value of under 18 pregnancies was totalled at 163 girls. The local value for
Sunderland in 2014 was 34.9, the value for England was 22.8, the value for
England worse was 43.0 and for England best it was 5.2. As you can see by
looking at these values, Sunderland is a lot higher than the England value (Gov.uk,
2016). There are many things which contribute to the pregnancies of girls under
the age of 18, one of the main factors is poverty. There is a solid correlation
between levels of young pregnancy and destitution and ward based date for
Sunderland bolster this finding. Between the period of 2007 and 2009 the rates
of teenage conceptions were significantly higher than the England average rate.
In Sunderland 60 out of 188 local super output areas are amongst the top 20%
most deprived local super output areas in England for children under 16 years
old. Particular groups of young people are more likely to become teenage
parents compared to others, with young people who have been in care are at an
increased risk of teenage pregnancy. For example, a fourth of young people who
had been in care were guardians by the age of 20 and 40% of these young people were
mothers (Hughes 2011). Another factor which contributes to teenage pregnancies
is lack of protection, this kind of fits in with poverty and bad parenting.
Children who come from a broken family or have been neglected when they were
young, tend to grow up with a lack of education, because of this lack of
knowledge in this area they don’t understand the dangers of not using
protection or if there is any clinics around them which could help. When a
young girl falls pregnant they don’t know where to turn for help or where they
can get advice on their pregnancy and sometimes it can be left too late before
they seek help or sometimes they are too scared to ask for help and support of
family they have to get an abortion. In 2008, 41% of under 18 conceptions in
Sunderland led to abortion, compared to the England average of 50% (Hughes,
2011). Unemployment can also have an impact on under 18 conception,
unemployment can been seen as an indicator for deprivation and poverty. Employment
is a domain in the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation and is naturally
linked to income. Children who grow up in areas with high unemployment rates
were more likely to experience deprivation and these areas were more likely to
have high under 18 conception rates. There are also many other risk factors
which can contribute to someone becoming a young parent, these risks factors
are: being a child of a teenage parent, being a teenage parent already, being a
young women who accesses termination services, living in poverty/areas with
high deprivation, having a low educational attainment and/or disengagement from
school, being in or leaving care, having a history of running away from home,
being exposed to inappropriate sexual activities, being sexually abused or
exploited, having low self0esteem, poor emotional health and/or self-harm,
having low aspirations and expectations, having inadequate family support
including domestic abuse, misusing alcohol and/or drugs, having multiple sexual
partners, having early onset of sexual activity (being under the age of 16), being
involved in crime, engaging in risky sexual behaviour, being sexually active
but not accessing contraception, being vulnerable to sexual exploitation,
demonstrating inappropriate sexual behaviour, being the victim of sexual assault
and having child-protection concerns and multi-agency involvement with the
young person/family. However, if someone has experienced any of these factors
it does not mean you will become a teenage parent (Office for National
Statistics, 2013)

Health behaviour linked to under 18 conception

There can be many health behaviours which are linked to under 18
conception. Coming from a teenage parent’s perspective falling pregnant can be
very difficult for them to go through especially if they don’t have any family
support. If a young girl falls pregnant and it wasn’t planned it can put a lot
of stress on her to go through termination or actually go through the full
pregnancy. If this mother did decided to have an abortion it can lead to
developing some mental health issues such as depression or PTSD this could also
lead them to have suicidal thoughts because of what they’ve done. However, if
she goes through the pregnancy and gets towards the ends of her pregnancy and
sadly has a miscarriage this will have a more serious impact on her health and
the health of the fathers. Going through the full pregnancy, seeing the baby on
the ultra sound listening to its heart beat, buying all the stuff, finding out
the gender and choosing names for one day to have a miscarriage can be truly devastating
for them, miscarriage triggers clinical depression in 30% of women, for men it’s
a lot harder as they tend to keep their emotions hidden away. For teenage
parents there is also a lot of added stress from being pregnant, they suffer
from sleepless nights, they have to arrange child care, book doctors’
appointments, they have to attempt to finish education or they’ll just drop put
and they worry about premature birth and if something bad could happen to the
baby (Burgess, 2006). Teenage pregnancy can also have a strain on the NHS, the
NHS spend roughly £30 million on aborts a year.

Health promotion proposed commission service

The theory was proposed to
help foresee and clarify volitional conduct. It expresses that a person’s
intention to perform or not to perform a behaviour is the determinant of that
activity. In combination, it takes a look at the determinants of the intentions
and attitudes towards the behaviour determined by subject norms. The theory of
planned behaviour is successful in the way it predicts and explains a range of
health behaviours and intentions such as smoking, drinking, health services
utilization, breastfeeding and substance use. The theory states that
behavioural achievement depends on both intention and behavioural control, the
theory is composed of 6 constructs that collectively represent a person’s
actual control over their behaviour, and these constructs are: attitude,
behavioural intention, subjective norms, and social norms, perceived power and
perceived behavioural control (Wayne, 2016). The theory of planned behaviour works
well as a health model for under 18 conception because the young people will
change their behaviour to stop any pregnancy or what they can go through to
receive the correct kind of help. If a young person worries in case they do
fall pregnant and they want to do something about it their behaviour towards
this starts to change, they will have the interest of changing this so they
don’t fall pregnant. They will need some form of motivation to help them with
this change and this could be a group of friends going to a health clinic to
get some form of contraception. However, some people don’t enjoy the thought of
having children so they are more likely to change their behaviour and get contraception
no matter what. So, if a young girl doesn’t want to fall pregnant then she will
find some motivation to go and get some contraception, when she gets the
contraception this has proved she has changed her behaviour and done something
which will have a positive impact on her life. Some of the advantages to this
theory are: the importance of subjective norms and attitudes towards predicting
behaviour was substantial and behavioural intentions explained future
behaviours (Ajzen and Madden, 1986).

Limitations of the model

Although the theory of
planned behaviour has been proved to be effective and work in certain cases and
has lend people to change their behaviour, it does have some limitations to it
as to why it may not be as effective as people think or why it may not work for
certain types of people, for example, those who live in poverty or in deprived
areas. The theory of planned behaviour expects that the person has acquired the
opportunities and assets to be effective in performing the behaviour, no matter
of the intention. It also doesn’t account whatever other factors which could be
involved or the elements into behavioural intention and inspiration, for
example, fear, risk, mood or past experience. On the other hand, it does
consider normative influences, despite everything it does not consider natural
or financial variables which can influence a person’s expectation to perform a
certain behaviour. It also additionally accepts that behaviour is the result of
a direct choice, making the acquired process to move forward, but it doesn’t
consider that this can change a period of time. While the additional
development of perceived behavioural control was a vital option to the theory,
it does not say anything in regards to actual control over the behaviour.
Another limitation is that the time allotment amongst “aim” and “behavioural
activity” is not addressed by the theory (Wayne, 2016).

Conclusion

To conclude this assignment I
think that teenage pregnancy and the stress and dangers of it should be taught
in schools so they can make teenagers aware of how serious it can be if you don’t
use any contraception. Sunderland has the highest prevalence of under 18
conception because of how high unemployment rates are and the amount of
deprived areas that are in it. There has been statistics to prove that conception
rates are higher in Sunderland and they’re reasons why, the health promotion
which has been chosen, the Theory of Planned Behaviour has been proved to be
effective but there are still limitations to it and it will not be effective on
every individual because they will have to change their behaviour for it to be
effective. 

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