this chapter, the first point it talks about is the language characteristics
from young children all the way to the school years of children. In the first 3
years children learn language, they developed their cognitive abilities and use
grammatical morphemes, negation, and questions regularly. In the pre-school
years, children have developed their basic language. This includes giving
commands, tell events, come up with stories, and ask questions. In the school
years, children have an increase of vocabulary in their language and have an
increase in their metalinguistic awareness.
The next point this chapter discusses
is three different types of perspectives. The first perspective is the
Behaviorist perspective. An important person who study this perspective is B.F.
Skinner. Skinner believed that the environment resulted in a large portion of
language. The next perspective was the Innatist perspective. Noam Chomsky study
this perspective. He thought that language was programmed genetically in children.
The last perspective was the interactionist/developmental perspective. Under
this perspective, it believed that both environment and genetics play a role in
learning language. Many important researchers are under this perspective. You
have Jean Piaget who thought that language developed from cognitive development.
Lev Vygotsky concluded that social interaction develops language. Here he came
up with the zone of proximal development. Catherine Snow studied young children
are talked and interacted with by adults. She developed the concept
child-directed speech. Other important topics had to do with the need for
interlocutor and how children need to be exposed to language to get the general
One of the last topics discussed in
this chapter is bilingualism. Here it talks about how learning other languages
effects the development in negative ways. Instead, learning multiple languages
is a benefit that can help you in many ways. It can help with families, it can
proved more opportunities in the futures, and it allows people to be able to
speak with many different people from different cultures. When learning multiple
languages, this chapter suggests that additive bilingualism is the best way to