Inthis chapter, the first point it talks about is the language characteristicsfrom young children all the way to the school years of children. In the first 3years children learn language, they developed their cognitive abilities and usegrammatical morphemes, negation, and questions regularly.
In the pre-schoolyears, children have developed their basic language. This includes givingcommands, tell events, come up with stories, and ask questions. In the schoolyears, children have an increase of vocabulary in their language and have anincrease in their metalinguistic awareness.
The next point this chapter discussesis three different types of perspectives. The first perspective is theBehaviorist perspective. An important person who study this perspective is B.F.Skinner. Skinner believed that the environment resulted in a large portion oflanguage.
The next perspective was the Innatist perspective. Noam Chomsky studythis perspective. He thought that language was programmed genetically in children.
The last perspective was the interactionist/developmental perspective. Underthis perspective, it believed that both environment and genetics play a role inlearning language. Many important researchers are under this perspective. Youhave Jean Piaget who thought that language developed from cognitive development.Lev Vygotsky concluded that social interaction develops language.
Here he cameup with the zone of proximal development. Catherine Snow studied young childrenare talked and interacted with by adults. She developed the conceptchild-directed speech. Other important topics had to do with the need forinterlocutor and how children need to be exposed to language to get the generalmeaning. One of the last topics discussed inthis chapter is bilingualism. Here it talks about how learning other languageseffects the development in negative ways. Instead, learning multiple languagesis a benefit that can help you in many ways. It can help with families, it canproved more opportunities in the futures, and it allows people to be able tospeak with many different people from different cultures.
When learning multiplelanguages, this chapter suggests that additive bilingualism is the best way tolearn.