Indonesia is how Indonesia ability to convert knowledge

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Last updated: May 29, 2019

Indonesia with 17,000 islands isa mega biodiversity country that is ranked first in the world for number ofmammals, palms, swallowtail butterfly, and parrot species. Further, it is thecenter of plant species diversity for a number of genera and is one of theworld’s center of species diversity of hard corals and many groups ofreef-associated flora and fauna. Approximately40 million Indonesians depend directly on forest resources (timber, rattan,firewood, etc.

) and millions of others reap indirect benefits. Indonesia is a rich country  biodiversity and traditional knowledgeincluding the traditional medicine. However, in theglobal era,  the richness of biodiversityis not the determining factor for prosperity of the people.

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Knowledge how to develop itsbiodiversity and traditional knowledge is important. The key factor is howIndonesia ability to convert knowledge into wealth and social good abilitythrough the process of innovation. Itis a must for Indonesia to work collaboratively also with other countriesin traditionalmedicine improvement.

  ContentsINTRODUCTION….

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. INDONESIANBIODIVERSITY PATTERN …….

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…… EXISTENCEOF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIAN FORESTRY ..

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…… KINDSOF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIA .

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PHYTO-PHARMACYLAW…..

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PROBLEMAND CHALLENGES …..

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…. REFERENCES…

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………………………………………………………………….. INTRODUCTIONIndonesia is renowned for bothits biological diversity and the rate of its loss. Indonesia is the world’slargest and most densely populated archipelago, comprising of approximately17,000 islands of which around 990 are permanently inhabited. The nationstraddles two of the world’s seven major biogeographic regions, the Orientaland Australasian, and includes Wallacea, a unique biotic and geographic areathat lies in the broad interface between these two major regions.Indonesia has been identified byall recent international conservation priority-setting exercises as a globalpriority for actions to conserve biodiversity. For example, in ConservationInternational (CI) considers Indonesia to be one of 17 “Megadiversity”countries — with two of the world’s 25 “hotspots”. It has 18 of the World WildlifeFund’s (WWF) “Global 200″ ecoregions, and 24 of Bird Life International’s 218″Endemic Bird Areas”.It also has 10% of the world’s flowering plant species and ranks as one of theworld’s center for Agro-biodiversityof plant cultivars and domesticated livestock.INDONESIAN BIODIVERSITY PATTERN The biologicalhistory of Indonesia is one of the least understood in the World (Heaney 1984).This is because of two major factors. First, the immense past and ongoinggeological activity of the region has created a complex and fragmented patternof 17,500 islands. Second, the paucity of tertiary fossil deposits does notallow for a reconstruction of past faunas (Meijaard 2004). What is known isthat, generally, isolation of animals and plants on islands for long periods oftime provides ample opportunities for speciation events to occur. Long periodsof insularity have occurred in Indonesia, such that speciation in Indonesianmammals, for example, dates back hundreds of thousands or even millions ofyears (Meijaard 2004). The modern biogeography of Indonesia, however, is alsogreatly impacted by events occurring during the glacial periods, up to asrecently as 10,000 years ago, when most Indonesian seas fell about 125 m fromtheir current levels (MacKinnon et al. 1996, Heaney 1986).          Indonesia with Sundaland, Wallacea, and Sahul BoundariesThere are a great number of linesthat have been drawn on maps to divide Indonesia into faunal and floral regions(Simpson 1977). Many of these lines are located differently depending on themanner in which the biogeographic data has been analyzed and depending onfaunal or floral group studied. This Report will use the broad faunal andfloral regional groupings of Sundaland, Wallacea and the Sahul, bearing in mindthat Wallacea is not considered to be merely a transitional region swamped byspecies from the adjoining areas, as it is frequently considered to be (seeMonk et al. 1997). In fact, Wallacea is a unique region with extensiveautochthonous speciation and proportionately a large numbers of endemics; it isan important contributor to the overall megabiodiversity of the Indonesianarchipelago (Kitchener et al. 1998 and references therein).EXISTENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIAN FORESTRYTropical forests in Indonesia have invaluablepotential of medicinal plants. Not less than 1,260 species of medicinal plantsare found in the forests (Zuhud and Haryanto, 1994). It has been utilized fromthe earliest times by various ethnic groups who live in or around forests. Traditional medical practices andinformation play an important role in scientific research, particularly whenthe literature and fieldwork data have been properly evaluated. Thedocumentation of traditional knowledge on the utilization of local plantresources by different ethnic groups or communities is one of the mainobjectives of ethno-botanical and ethno-pharmacological research. In general,traditional knowledge study focuses on the indigenous people. Indigenous peopleare the ones who were the original inhabitants of any area and who live a self-sufficientlife with no foreign involvement. Shengji (1999) said that indigenous knowledgesystems are not only important for the cultures from which they evolve, butalso for scientists and planners striving to improve conditions in ruralsocieties. Indonesianherbal medicines are used based on empirical practice: diseases based onempirical practice: diseases preventive (48.9%), health promotion (22.47preventive (48.9%), health promotion (22.47 %), diseases curative (21.78%) andthe rests %), diseases curative (21.78%) and the rests are for cosmetics arefor cosmetics. Indonesian government has in viewof its importance, identified medicinal plants as a priority area of thecountry’s program. Accordingto Indonesian Medical Association According to Indonesian Medical Association(IDI) statements, herbal medicines will be (IDI) statements, herbal medicineswill be accepted formally by the conventional (Western) accepted formally bythe conventional (Western) medical doctors if its safety and efficacy has medicaldoctors if its safety and efficacy has been proved scientifically (currenttrend been proved scientifically (current trend application, especially fordegenerative application, especially for degenerative diseases, certain viralinfection, and cancer).KINDS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIADiversity of medicinal plantscould be catagorized into diversity in the family groups, habitat, life form,utilization, and part of plants used as medicine.-         Family Groups Medicinalplants diversity based on family groups, shows relationship and similaritybetween one species to another within a family group. For example, species fromfamily called Fabaceae are having similaritu in the fruit form called legumes.Meanwhile, species from family Euphorbiaceae are having similarity in the formof white sap as white as milk.          –         HabitatMedicinalplants diversity can be categorized form their habitat, the place they gros.Plant usually have spesific requirements for them to grow, in example type ofsoil, chemical content in the soil, climate/micro-cimate, elevation from abovesea level, rainfall/precipitation, etc. –         Life formLifeforms of medicinal plants are related to each species’ stem/trunkcharacteristics, whether it is herbaceous (herbs, climbing herbs), lignosus(shrub, tree, liana), grass, fern, bamboo (calamus), palmae, etc. Life formsare sometimes also related to family groups. Source; Zuhud, 2009-         Utilization Utilizationof medicinal plants for certain diseases/illness is usually collected throughethno-forest-pharmacy studies, which is part of ethnobotanical/ethnobiologicalstudies. Researchers who conduct these studies will interview and observe thetarget community/ethnic in utiizing plants for medicine, and other informationand specimens as mentioned by WHO, IUCN, and WWF (1993) in this paper’sIntroduction section. Zuhud (2009) catagorized the 2,039 medicinal plantsspecies based on their utilization for specific diseases/illness.Thereare more than 550 ethnics in Indonesia (Hidayan, 1997; Purba, 2001), spreadfrom the westernmost part of Sumatera Island to the easternmost part ofIndonesia. Data collected from many sources has been analyzed by Damayanti, et al. (2009), and resulted in 82ethnics with total number of plants species used for medication of top fiveranks of common diseases within those ethnics is 706 species.-         Parts of plants used as medicineThemost important thing in utilizing plants as medicines is parts of the plantsused in the preparation of medicine. Different ethnic will use same ordifferent species and parts of plants. It depends on their experinces andbequeathed recipes from their ancestors. Preparing parts of plants from certainspecies will become poisons when it is used too much or any mistakes inpreparation. Almost all parts of plants could be used for medicines, of coursefor specific species and diseases. Medicinal plants diversity based on parts ofplants used in preparation of the medicines.Suchdiversity of medicinal pants is ony 0.05% of Indonesian plant species (= 2,039of 38,000 species). How about other 99.5% species? Until now, it is not knownyet, whether those species has medicinal properties or not. More researches arenecessary to reveal plants properties, including studies in taxonomy, ethnobotany,pharmacy, etc. PHYTO-PHARMACY LAWBased on Regulation of The Headof Natural Agency of Drug and Food control No. HK.00.05.41.1384, has beendecided :1.      Traditional Medicines are subtances orformula of substances in the form of herbal substances, animal substances,minerals, essence preparations (galenic) or mixture thereof, already used fromgeneration to generation for treatment on the basis of experience.2.      Herbal medicines (jamu) are Indonesia’straditional medicines.3.      Standardized-Herbal Medicines arepreparations of natural medicines having their security and efficacy alreadyproven naturally by pre-clinical test and their raw materials alreadystandardized.4.      Phyto-pharmacy is preparation ofnatural medicines having their security and efficacy already proven naturallyby pre-clinical and clinical tests and their raw materials and products alreadystandardized.5.      Galenic preparation is a result ofsimplifying extraction coming from plants or animals.6.      Domestic Traditional Medicines aretraditional medicines made and packed by domestic industries, which coverunlicensed traditional medicines, licensed traditional medicines and contracttraditional medicines.7.      Licensed Traditional Medicines aretraditional medicines made in Indonesia on the basis of a license.8.      Contract Traditional Medicines,contract standardized herbal medicines, and contract phyto-pharmacy areproducts whose production is entrusted to other traditional medicine industryor pharmaceutical industry on the basis of a contract.9.      Imported Traditional Medicines aretraditional medicines made by overseas industry, which are imported anddistributed in Indonesia’s territory.10.     Distribution License is approval ofregistration of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines, andphyto-pharmacy issued by the Head of the Board so that the medicines can bedistributed in Indonesia’s territory.11.     Contract Provider is industry operatingin the traditional medicine sector, which entrusts the work of production oftraditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy on thebasis of a contract.12.     Contract Recipient is industryoperating in the traditional medicine sector, which receives the work ofproduction of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines andphyto-pharmacy on the basis of a contract.13.     Diskette is a specifically formatteddiskette for the registration of traditional medicines, standardized herbalmedicines and phyto-pharmacy.14.     Form is registration form oftraditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy.15.     Variation is change in whatever aspectin products of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines andphyto-pharmacy, including but not limited to change in formulation, method,industry, production place, specification of raw material and product, package,container and labeling.16.     Composition is a qualitative andquantitative composition of efficacious substances in traditional medicines,standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy.17.     Formula is a qualitative andquantitative composition of efficacious substances and additives.18.     Labeling is complete information aboutefficacy, security and method of use as well as other information deemednecessary to mention in etiquette and/ or brochures attached to traditionalmedicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy and wrapper.19.     Container is a pack directly contactwith content.20.     Bets is a number of traditionalmedicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy made in aproduction circle, which have uniform characteristic and quality.21.     Head of Board is the Head of NationalAgency of Food And Drug Control of the Republic of Indonesia.22.     Deputy is Deputy for Supervision overTraditional Medicines, Cosmetics and Complementary Products of the NationalAgency of Food And Drug Control.    PROBLEM AND CHALLENGESAsmentioned by WHO, IUCN, and WWF (1993), ethobotanist who conductsethobotanical survey must collects voucher specimensof the plants used as medicines and get a qualified taxonomies to verify theiridentity. Until now, this step has become one of standard procedures inethnobotanical surveys. However, there are problems which have never been thought asproblems in the process of identification, startedfrom the location where the specimens are collected to identification in anauthorized institution. They are :1.       Limited number of local people who knows,recognizes, and understands medicinal plantsdiversity and usage that can identify medicinal plants in the field.2.      Limitednumber of plant identification books/guide withmany pages in each books/guide which is troublesome to be brought to the field.3.      Limitednumber of authorized institution and facilities for plants identification 4.      Limitednumber of taxonomy in each authorized institution that can scientifically identifyenormous plants species 5.      Timeand money consuming, as effects of problems 1) to 4)These problems generatechallenges for scientist and also local people to find solutions. These aresome challenges could be identified and most possible to be implemented : 1.      Encouragingyoung generations to become taxonomist 2.      Encouragingyoung generations to continue the legacy of their ancestors,including recognizing and identification of plantsspecies for medicines.3.      Developingmore authorized institution for specimens”identification.4.      Developingtechnology that reduces problems in identification.5.      Developingnetworking with stakeholders in technology example researchers and expert incomputer technology.While other challenges needpromotion, coordination,collaboration between stakeholders and more period of time,challenges number 4) Developing technology that reduces problems inidentification can be started immediately by scientists and researchers whomajoring technologies, both computers and in formation technologies,in collaboration with taxonomist, ethobotanist, and other Plant resource basedscientists/researchers.

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