Indonesia with 17,000 islands is
a mega biodiversity country that is ranked first in the world for number of
mammals, palms, swallowtail butterfly, and parrot species. Further, it is the
center of plant species diversity for a number of genera and is one of the
world’s center of species diversity of hard corals and many groups of
reef-associated flora and fauna. Approximately
40 million Indonesians depend directly on forest resources (timber, rattan,
firewood, etc.) and millions of others reap indirect benefits. Indonesia is a rich country biodiversity and traditional knowledge
including the traditional medicine. However, in the
global era, the richness of biodiversity
is not the determining factor for prosperity of the people. Knowledge how to develop its
biodiversity and traditional knowledge is important. The key factor is how
Indonesia ability to convert knowledge into wealth and social good ability
through the process of innovation. It
is a must for Indonesia to work collaboratively also with other countries
BIODIVERSITY PATTERN ………………………………………………………………
OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIAN FORESTRY ……………………….
OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIA …………………………………………………..
AND CHALLENGES …………………………………………………………………………….
Indonesia is renowned for both
its biological diversity and the rate of its loss. Indonesia is the world’s
largest and most densely populated archipelago, comprising of approximately
17,000 islands of which around 990 are permanently inhabited. The nation
straddles two of the world’s seven major biogeographic regions, the Oriental
and Australasian, and includes Wallacea, a unique biotic and geographic area
that lies in the broad interface between these two major regions.
Indonesia has been identified by
all recent international conservation priority-setting exercises as a global
priority for actions to conserve biodiversity. For example, in Conservation
International (CI) considers Indonesia to be one of 17 “Megadiversity”
countries — with two of the world’s 25 “hotspots”. It has 18 of the World Wildlife
Fund’s (WWF) “Global 200” ecoregions, and 24 of Bird Life International’s 218
“Endemic Bird Areas”.
It also has 10% of the world’s flowering plant species and ranks as one of the
world’s center for Agro-biodiversity
of plant cultivars and domesticated livestock.
INDONESIAN BIODIVERSITY PATTERN
history of Indonesia is one of the least understood in the World (Heaney 1984).
This is because of two major factors. First, the immense past and ongoing
geological activity of the region has created a complex and fragmented pattern
of 17,500 islands. Second, the paucity of tertiary fossil deposits does not
allow for a reconstruction of past faunas (Meijaard 2004). What is known is
that, generally, isolation of animals and plants on islands for long periods of
time provides ample opportunities for speciation events to occur. Long periods
of insularity have occurred in Indonesia, such that speciation in Indonesian
mammals, for example, dates back hundreds of thousands or even millions of
years (Meijaard 2004). The modern biogeography of Indonesia, however, is also
greatly impacted by events occurring during the glacial periods, up to as
recently as 10,000 years ago, when most Indonesian seas fell about 125 m from
their current levels (MacKinnon et al. 1996, Heaney 1986).
Indonesia with Sundaland, Wallacea, and Sahul Boundaries
There are a great number of lines
that have been drawn on maps to divide Indonesia into faunal and floral regions
(Simpson 1977). Many of these lines are located differently depending on the
manner in which the biogeographic data has been analyzed and depending on
faunal or floral group studied. This Report will use the broad faunal and
floral regional groupings of Sundaland, Wallacea and the Sahul, bearing in mind
that Wallacea is not considered to be merely a transitional region swamped by
species from the adjoining areas, as it is frequently considered to be (see
Monk et al. 1997). In fact, Wallacea is a unique region with extensive
autochthonous speciation and proportionately a large numbers of endemics; it is
an important contributor to the overall megabiodiversity of the Indonesian
archipelago (Kitchener et al. 1998 and references therein).
EXISTENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIAN FORESTRY
Tropical forests in Indonesia have invaluable
potential of medicinal plants. Not less than 1,260 species of medicinal plants
are found in the forests (Zuhud and Haryanto, 1994). It has been utilized from
the earliest times by various ethnic groups who live in or around forests. Traditional medical practices and
information play an important role in scientific research, particularly when
the literature and fieldwork data have been properly evaluated. The
documentation of traditional knowledge on the utilization of local plant
resources by different ethnic groups or communities is one of the main
objectives of ethno-botanical and ethno-pharmacological research. In general,
traditional knowledge study focuses on the indigenous people. Indigenous people
are the ones who were the original inhabitants of any area and who live a self-sufficient
life with no foreign involvement. Shengji (1999) said that indigenous knowledge
systems are not only important for the cultures from which they evolve, but
also for scientists and planners striving to improve conditions in rural
herbal medicines are used based on empirical practice: diseases based on
empirical practice: diseases preventive (48.9%), health promotion (22.47
preventive (48.9%), health promotion (22.47 %), diseases curative (21.78%) and
the rests %), diseases curative (21.78%) and the rests are for cosmetics are
for cosmetics. Indonesian government has in view
of its importance, identified medicinal plants as a priority area of the
country’s program. According
to Indonesian Medical Association According to Indonesian Medical Association
(IDI) statements, herbal medicines will be (IDI) statements, herbal medicines
will be accepted formally by the conventional (Western) accepted formally by
the conventional (Western) medical doctors if its safety and efficacy has medical
doctors if its safety and efficacy has been proved scientifically (current
trend been proved scientifically (current trend application, especially for
degenerative application, especially for degenerative diseases, certain viral
infection, and cancer).
KINDS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN INDONESIA
Diversity of medicinal plants
could be catagorized into diversity in the family groups, habitat, life form,
utilization, and part of plants used as medicine.
plants diversity based on family groups, shows relationship and similarity
between one species to another within a family group. For example, species from
family called Fabaceae are having similaritu in the fruit form called legumes.
Meanwhile, species from family Euphorbiaceae are having similarity in the form
of white sap as white as milk.
plants diversity can be categorized form their habitat, the place they gros.
Plant usually have spesific requirements for them to grow, in example type of
soil, chemical content in the soil, climate/micro-cimate, elevation from above
sea level, rainfall/precipitation, etc.
forms of medicinal plants are related to each species’ stem/trunk
characteristics, whether it is herbaceous (herbs, climbing herbs), lignosus
(shrub, tree, liana), grass, fern, bamboo (calamus), palmae, etc. Life forms
are sometimes also related to family groups.
Source; Zuhud, 2009
of medicinal plants for certain diseases/illness is usually collected through
ethno-forest-pharmacy studies, which is part of ethnobotanical/ethnobiological
studies. Researchers who conduct these studies will interview and observe the
target community/ethnic in utiizing plants for medicine, and other information
and specimens as mentioned by WHO, IUCN, and WWF (1993) in this paper’s
Introduction section. Zuhud (2009) catagorized the 2,039 medicinal plants
species based on their utilization for specific diseases/illness.
are more than 550 ethnics in Indonesia (Hidayan, 1997; Purba, 2001), spread
from the westernmost part of Sumatera Island to the easternmost part of
Indonesia. Data collected from many sources has been analyzed by Damayanti, et al. (2009), and resulted in 82
ethnics with total number of plants species used for medication of top five
ranks of common diseases within those ethnics is 706 species.
Parts of plants used as medicine
most important thing in utilizing plants as medicines is parts of the plants
used in the preparation of medicine. Different ethnic will use same or
different species and parts of plants. It depends on their experinces and
bequeathed recipes from their ancestors. Preparing parts of plants from certain
species will become poisons when it is used too much or any mistakes in
preparation. Almost all parts of plants could be used for medicines, of course
for specific species and diseases. Medicinal plants diversity based on parts of
plants used in preparation of the medicines.
diversity of medicinal pants is ony 0.05% of Indonesian plant species (= 2,039
of 38,000 species). How about other 99.5% species? Until now, it is not known
yet, whether those species has medicinal properties or not. More researches are
necessary to reveal plants properties, including studies in taxonomy, ethnobotany,
Based on Regulation of The Head
of Natural Agency of Drug and Food control No. HK.00.05.41.1384, has been
1. Traditional Medicines are subtances or
formula of substances in the form of herbal substances, animal substances,
minerals, essence preparations (galenic) or mixture thereof, already used from
generation to generation for treatment on the basis of experience.
2. Herbal medicines (jamu) are Indonesia’s
3. Standardized-Herbal Medicines are
preparations of natural medicines having their security and efficacy already
proven naturally by pre-clinical test and their raw materials already
4. Phyto-pharmacy is preparation of
natural medicines having their security and efficacy already proven naturally
by pre-clinical and clinical tests and their raw materials and products already
5. Galenic preparation is a result of
simplifying extraction coming from plants or animals.
6. Domestic Traditional Medicines are
traditional medicines made and packed by domestic industries, which cover
unlicensed traditional medicines, licensed traditional medicines and contract
7. Licensed Traditional Medicines are
traditional medicines made in Indonesia on the basis of a license.
8. Contract Traditional Medicines,
contract standardized herbal medicines, and contract phyto-pharmacy are
products whose production is entrusted to other traditional medicine industry
or pharmaceutical industry on the basis of a contract.
9. Imported Traditional Medicines are
traditional medicines made by overseas industry, which are imported and
distributed in Indonesia’s territory.
10. Distribution License is approval of
registration of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines, and
phyto-pharmacy issued by the Head of the Board so that the medicines can be
distributed in Indonesia’s territory.
11. Contract Provider is industry operating
in the traditional medicine sector, which entrusts the work of production of
traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy on the
basis of a contract.
12. Contract Recipient is industry
operating in the traditional medicine sector, which receives the work of
production of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and
phyto-pharmacy on the basis of a contract.
13. Diskette is a specifically formatted
diskette for the registration of traditional medicines, standardized herbal
medicines and phyto-pharmacy.
14. Form is registration form of
traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy.
15. Variation is change in whatever aspect
in products of traditional medicines, standardized herbal medicines and
phyto-pharmacy, including but not limited to change in formulation, method,
industry, production place, specification of raw material and product, package,
container and labeling.
16. Composition is a qualitative and
quantitative composition of efficacious substances in traditional medicines,
standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy.
17. Formula is a qualitative and
quantitative composition of efficacious substances and additives.
18. Labeling is complete information about
efficacy, security and method of use as well as other information deemed
necessary to mention in etiquette and/ or brochures attached to traditional
medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy and wrapper.
19. Container is a pack directly contact
20. Bets is a number of traditional
medicines, standardized herbal medicines and phyto-pharmacy made in a
production circle, which have uniform characteristic and quality.
21. Head of Board is the Head of National
Agency of Food And Drug Control of the Republic of Indonesia.
22. Deputy is Deputy for Supervision over
Traditional Medicines, Cosmetics and Complementary Products of the National
Agency of Food And Drug Control.
PROBLEM AND CHALLENGES
mentioned by WHO, IUCN, and WWF (1993), ethobotanist who conducts
ethobotanical survey must collects voucher specimens
of the plants used as medicines and get a qualified taxonomies to verify their
identity. Until now, this step has become one of standard procedures in
ethnobotanical surveys. However, there are problems which have never been thought as
problems in the process of identification, started
from the location where the specimens are collected to identification in an
authorized institution. They are :
1. Limited number of local people who knows,
recognizes, and understands medicinal plants
diversity and usage that can identify medicinal plants in the field.
number of plant identification books/guide with
many pages in each books/guide which is troublesome to be brought to the field.
number of authorized institution and facilities for plants identification
number of taxonomy in each authorized institution that can scientifically identify
enormous plants species
and money consuming, as effects of problems 1) to 4)
These problems generate
challenges for scientist and also local people to find solutions. These are
some challenges could be identified and most possible to be implemented :
young generations to become taxonomist
young generations to continue the legacy of their ancestors,
including recognizing and identification of plants
species for medicines.
more authorized institution for specimens”
technology that reduces problems in identification.
networking with stakeholders in technology example researchers and expert in
While other challenges need
collaboration between stakeholders and more period of time,
challenges number 4) Developing technology that reduces problems in
identification can be started immediately by scientists and researchers who
majoring technologies, both computers and in formation technologies,
in collaboration with taxonomist, ethobotanist, and other Plant resource based