Oman is located in the south eastern part of Arabian Peninsula enclosed by United Arab Emirates from north west, Saudi Arabia from the west Gulf of Oman and Arabian sea from the east and south east(Figure-1).
Oman is one of the countries around the world that suffer from the lack of water resources due to the appearance of dry areas define by unstable water situation and lack of rainfall where the average annual rainfall is about 100 millimeters ranging from 10 millimeters in some desert areas to 350 millimeters in mountain areas.
Even with the dry climate heavy rainfall on the rocky slopes(mountains) sometimes lead to large flooding in the loss of a large volume of this water in the sea or desert.
Due to the lack of rainfall which is the main resource for the water in Oman compared to the increase in water demand and the high rate of groundwater consumption the water deficit has become a reality in many areas. The groundwater level has reduced and its quality has reduced as well. Many of the *Aflajs and wells have become dry and seawater mix with well water due to its proximity to the coasts. The current water deficit in Oman is estimated at (369) million cubic meters. The agriculture sector is the largest water sector where 83% of the water resources are using in the agriculture.
The climate and the topography of Oman:
is describe by a semi-dry desert with a constant rise in temperature throughout the months of the year. Rainfalls relatively little and falls in the summer and winter. This has created the suitable environment for the growth of different plants and trees and supporting agriculture. Sometimes with rain describe by high humidity.