introduction about the relationship between social and physical

introduction cultural landscape in geography is an approach to geography that goes into details about the relationship between social and physical phenomena in a specific study area such as feminism and disability. theres been a lot of controversy revolving around the injustice some genders and disable people feel. robyn longhurst writes a paper that examines the feminist geographers and how their thought process has evolved over the decades. the term body is thoroughly discussed about and the different ways its used. while examining the word it raises multiple questions such as what is thing called the body. the article starts off by explaining some of the recent approaches to understanding embodiment e.g. phenomenological psychoanalytic and inscriptive approaches. the next study was written by rob kitchin called out of place. speaks about how disabled are excluded from from mainstream society. how because disabled people dont have the capabilities of able-bodied they are portrayed as a out of place. the topic is further discussed about the negative backlash they deal with in the workplace or society. the buildings are constructed to marginalise disabled people because they dont have the same access to everything due to barriers. the cultural landscape has been affected by both of these topics because overtime feminist geographers have been involved in discussions about how the body is male dominant. in addition the modern buildings are being built to accommodate for disabled people like building ramps beside stairs as well as elevators where needed. easier access to public transportation. disembodied geographies robyn longhurst longhurst begins the paper by questioning this thing called the body. she examines the work of geographer who debate that a cartesian separation between mind and body correlates to geography. the work of the geographers is outlined who seek to create the unorthodox relationship between embodiment and spatiality. this rising literature contains potential to prompt new explanation and understanding of power knowledge and social relations amongst people and places. what is this thing called the body its important to understand bodily experience to be able to read peoples relationship with the physical and social environments. talks about ways the body gets taken for granted how we create a business about how the body can get into shape and how its assumed that prior to slimming the body it was out of shape. the message the advertisers try to convey to the consumers is a way to take the body for granted. emphasizes the magnitude of the usage of our bodies by listing a thing we use our body for such as personal identity assignment of all sorts of roles tasks duties and strategies for practical action and express moral judgement we use our bodies for reproduction. the word body is taken for granted given theres multiple ways it can be used as. the meaning of body cant be easily explained with a dictionary simply because it encompasses a bewildering variety of meanings. there is a huge debate on a simple question what is the body grosz defines the body through anatomical views speaking about the nerves organs muscle skeletal structure along with in what shape it is. many have tried to approach to understand embodiment in recent times each areas including cultural studies feminist and gender studies philosophy social anthropology sociology and geography. johnson claims that a phenomenological approach can be utilized by a feminist geographer in order to embody geography. another way to analyze the body can be found in psychoanalytic theory. a couple of feminist writers argue how weve come to acquired sexed identities the process concludes in separation of two. male and female with the male body being regarded as the superior. mind/body dualism in geography western theories are characterised by dualism. it entails a divide of body and mind. the mind is capable of conceptual power of intelligence which leads to selfhood. the body was labelled as a vehicle which be directed by the mind for example woman is described only in terms of man the body is described only in terms of the mind and so on. the cartesian division the subordination of the body to the mind expands of the idea of dualistic thinking which had a major impact on the western thought. dualism have shaped geographers understanding of people and place. geography itself along with other social sciences was built on the foundation on the mind/body dualism which claims mind and body as separate entities acting on one another. dualistic mindset in geographical research creates distinction amongst culture nature production and reproduction etc. mind/body dualism is gendered with the mind typically related to positive terms like reason rationality subject culture public self and masculinity. the body however has been tied with negative terms like irrationality private passion and femininity. feminist geographers argue that knowledge stated as masculinist which assumes a person who believes he can separate himself from his body values emotions and past experiences so that he is autonomous. geography topics comes with a cost many themes/topics are brought up of those who address the interests of benefiting men to be specific white bourgeois able-bodied men. which isnt very shocking as the academic discipline of geography has been historically dominated by men more so than any other sciences. embodied geographics geographers are still including dirty topics on the agenda. throughout the last decade there has been multiple strong debates about the different ways we should be examining the diverse and changing ways through which each human embodied subject is formed. mcdowell insists geographers to rethink their views and emphasizes that being a woman challenges ideas such as the boundaries between the body and the object world between self and other. mcdowell asks if bringing attention on the sexed body as a critical component help better understand power knowledge and social relationships amongst the environment and people. there are numerous writings emerging that go in depth with the sexualized body bell and valentine argue that in 1990s sexuality is at last finding a voice as a legitimate and significant area for geographical research. space and embodiment is an interdisciplinary problematic which attracts other geographers. critic: we as humans have come a long way in recognising our problems and finding a way to fix it. in recent years one of the biggest issue is womens rights in this article the mind/body dualism is the fundamental aspect in geography and social sciences. woman have faced more challenges through the years which has made them question geographers and ultimately reconstructing the dualistic mindset. this in my opinion is a positive change speaking in modern terms because i agree with the feminist ideologies as they are no less than a common man. case study and discussions pending concerns all of the feminist geographers focus their study on the same subject with gender division as a priority. this concern sums up to a wider set of issues involving gender family sexuality race and class. areas of concern include the geographic distances in gender relations and equality the geography of women spatial limitations welfare geography. in addition to these concerns feminist geography also critiques human geo and other academic disciplines disputing that academic foundation have traditionally exemplified by patriarchal perspective and that modern area of study which does not take in account the nature of previous work that supports the masculine bias of academic study. are there issues of equality and/or injustice geographers in society have ignored the principle argument which outlines the uneven and unequal positions and power of woman and men. early work indicate that gender relations were the result of and reflected in the spatial structure of society. both genders experience material inequalities in terms of approach to work wealth power and status that leads to a divide in spatial relations with respect to access to public and private space and time-geographies. for example women are more likely to experience spatial behaviour where they are expected to be at home taking care of a child and domestic duties. how have globalization impacted this topic within the last decades globalization has a had a major impact on women. feminist geographers argue that the impact of economic globalization should be recognised as women make up a disproportionate percentage of the poor. many agree that the the effects have been negative. gender oppression occurs in multiple forms cultural and geographical locations women in everywhere face systematic disadvantages due to structural injustices women from all nationalities suffer from poverty deprivation and political marginalization associated with neoliberal policies. thus more feminist analysts believe the policies are against them ultimately leading to a system hostile or antagonistic to women. jaggar 2001 out of place knowing ones place: space power and the exclusion of disabled people rob kitchin the article begins with mentioning how the disabled are marginalised and excluded from mainstream society. disability has specialities that work to exclude and oppress disabled people its meant to keep them in their place and written to convey to disabled people that theyre out of place. space power and exclusion disabled people are statistically the poorest in western society. not including exclusion the disabled are marginalised from workplace and often segregated with in schooling they cant live affordably and have restriction when it comes to public transportation. michael oliver proposes that disabled people are socially excluded due to their inability which restricts them an making them unproductive and so hinder the progress of capital accumulation. he argues the disabled are mainly marginalised from the production process arent as efficient and the exclusion occurs is reinforced by the state through the ideologies of individualism. as such oliver views disability as a capital concern there are multiple theories from psychoanalysis or social constructivism which could be used to explain why disabled people are oppressed. in this paper there are two related arguments presented. first the responsibility of space in reproducing and maintaining the method of exclusion should be acknowledged. secondly that merging aspect of social constructivist and political economic idea gives more in depth inclusive understanding of disability. space excludes them in two different ways currently placed to keep disabled people in their place and spaces are social texts that target those disabled who are out of place. its obvious the relationship between the disability and society cannot be enclosed within either economic or political terms or socio-cultural processes but must embody a mixture of the two. in a combined approach the disabled are excluded not only due to capitalist mode of production but because of the socially constructed modes of belief and example cherished in cultural representations and cultural myths. these forms of oppression are played out inside space and are assumed framework by space its structured and scripted to perpetuate disables beliefs. if society is able to understand disability and the experiences we have to deconstruct the landscapes of power and exclusion. the disablist organisation of space imrie argues that space is portrayed to assert the dominance of able-bodied people. places that exclude disabled people are rarely natural theyre built based on individual social interactions along with state policy regulations and architectural planning. barriers to inclusion are apparent in the urban environment. for example inconsiderate designing includes steps with no ramps atm machines being placed too high or places connected by inaccessible public transport. its especially difficult for those who are unemployed because they become a burden on their family providing no source of income mainly due to them being excluded from their workplace. capital relations have shaped disabled peoples lives in a negative way but its argued that disablist practices are constituents of a set of socio-spatial power relations. critique: the article states a lot of the downside of disabled people. its believed that they slow capital production and ask for too much and should know ones place. this is completely bias in my opinion because it wasnt their choice to be the way they are. able-bodied would never understand the hardships they have to endure not being able to do anything freely is tough. the article adds the reasoning as to why disabled arent employed in production is due to their inability to perform the task at hand. i believe disabled people are being utilised wrong. case study and discussion pending concern as we approach the modern era construction of new buildings have to be held accountable for barriers that disabled people face. they should be responsible to put in more money for disabled people to have access its concerning because chances are theyre being excluded from society. society is working on improving landscape for people who are disabled. are there issues of equality and or/injustice disabled people make up a large part of the human population. disability discrimination are classified within 6 different categories direct discrimination indirect discrimination failure to make reasonable adjustments discrimination arising from disability harassment and victimisation. each correlated to injustice direct discrimination is when someone else treats you worse than an able-bodied person in a similar situation based off your disability. on the contrary indirect discrimination occurs when a company has a policy has a worse impact on disabled people compared to those who arent. indirect disability discrimination is unlawful unless the employer shows a good reasoning for the policy. this is known as objective justification.

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