Introduction Sport pedagogy is the study of the place where sportand education come together.
Sport pedagogy is also a process about theteachers and coaches helps the children or young people to learn about thepedagogical knowledge and skills effectively. Sport pedagogy has 3 complexdimensions which is knowledge in content, learners and learning,teachers/teaching and coaches/coaching. Knowledge in content means the sportknowledge taught, coached or learned is depends on a range of historical,political, economic and social factors.
Next, learners and learning is the coreof sport pedagogy which is needed to learn theories furthermore to have anunderstanding of diversity. About teachers/teaching and coach/coaching, thenecessary step in providing positive sport experiences for learners withdiverse needs is the development of effective career-long professional learningfor teachers and coach. The importance of sport pedagogy Sportpedagogy is important to maintain physical stamina and also about the habit ofobedience, discipline, the determination to win, will power. Sport pedagogy helps learner to become more creativeagainst the contextual of sport coaching style so coaches and instructors canmake change for their training program with applying the knowledge of sportscience to prevent sport injury and increase the fitness of athletes.
Inthis respect, education by and in sport refers to the proper education in orderto perform as a person, a (elite) athlete, as pupil in a training, a match, thephysical education lesson, at the sport club, at school and thereby one expectsan effect for the society (see also Buisman, 2004). “Sport has the power…”(quote Nelson Mandela). In this respect, sport is often regarded as the thirdeducational environment, in addition to family and school (e.
g. Schreuder,Valkestjin, & Mewissen, 2008). Sportpedagogy studies to knowing oneself as establishing self-awareness andself-confidence of a coach to plan the sports and training activities. Thereare respectively for a person to knowing oneself. Personality is related to thestudy of learning definite knowledge about oneself. The formation of skills andqualities is important to explain the competent and purposeful analysis forfinding oneself of own professional and human dignities and shortcomings.Sportspedagogy provides standard knowledge in its prevailing part which is thecorrect activities about the respective situations described.
Coaches will thendevelop additionally in different knowledge with variety of sports educations.Thereby, the skills and habits for seeking new knowledge, for finding new solutions,creating original products of the theory and methodology of the sportcompetitive activity are established. Study in sport pedagogy can build uppersonal moral value and aesthetic in sport. Learning theory for effectivelearning practiceLearning is the process how a people expertise andgaining the knowledge.
There are some learning theories that are effective forlearning practice which are behaviorism, cognitivism, constructism. Behaviorisms believe through the associationsbetween stimuli and responses will learn the new behavior or changes inbehavior. And they also believe the knowledge will exist independently andoutside of people. Behaviorism theorist define that learning of the learnerwill react to the stimulus with some sort of response when a cue of stimulusfrom then environment is presented. The result of something will be effectedthe behavior. For an example, when study for a test and getting a good resultin a test will affect the behavior.
The new behavior pattern can learn and doit automatically through a repeatedly practice. Having a verbal reinforcementto a learner will beneficial they work more hardly and inceptively learning. Forthe example, the coaches or teachers saying ‘good job’ to a learner when theyare doing a right thing or getting good performance, will boost learner’sconfident and improve their behavior. The learners are prepared for recall ofbasic facts, automatic responses or performing tasks in this theory. For the cognitivism, it means based on the thoughtprocess behind the behavior. Cognitivism more affected by the internal processrather than by external circumstance. In this learning theory, cognitivism paymore on attention to what they think rather than observable behavior. For anexample, learners playing a game will help them create new strategy and buildup self-confident to solve the problem.
In this theory, learning is the changeof knowledge in mind not change in behavior. Constructism means the people who learning somethingbased on their individual experiences and internal knowledge only. This kind oflearners will solve the problem through their individual experiences and ownidea. Therefore, if the learners want to successful, they should adjust theirmental models to accommodate new experiences.
Collaborative learning is a good wayto help learners gain different knowledge and idea from different people. This three learning theories are very important tounderstanding. Learners need to decide and apply any theory and strategies inlearning. We have to consider the knowledge of learners, the thoughtsprocessing demands and the desired outcome which generation the new ideas orsingle answer.
A perfect pedagogy for teachers andcoaches The literature suggests that, despite some challengesin their implementation, player or athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches toteaching games and coaching team sport can improving game playing ability,increase players or athletes motivation and provide positive affectiveexperiences of learning. A range of these approaches, Teaching Games forUnderstanding (TGfU), Game Sense, Play Practice and the Tactical-Decision LearningModel, there are share in common to be referred as game-based or game-centredapproaches with their own different detail. Dialogue, reflection and purposefulsocial are the central role of these.
There are interaction playing infacilitating learning and the deep understanding that they can promote. Theseapproaches are widely referred to as instructional models for teaching andcoaching consideration because they are sharing common pedagogy features tocreate possibilities for promoting the same positive learning outcomes insports beyond team games. In this article, we examine the concept of PositivePedagogy as an extension of Game Sense pedagogy beyond games and team sports toexplore what it has to offer coaching across a range of sports. Model based practice Model-basedpractice (MBP) defined as the alternative approaches to teaching in physicaleducation. One of the difficulties with this approach is that physicaleducators have sought to use it to achieve diverse and sometimes competingeducational benefits, and these wide-ranging aspirations are rarely if everachieved. Models-based practice offers a possible resolution to these problemsby limiting the range of learning outcomes, subject matter and teachingstrategies appropriate to each pedagogical model and thus the arguments thatcan be used for educational value.
There are two examples are provided in thisarticle to support a case for educational value. This case is built on anexamination of one established pedagogical model, Sport Education, which isinformed by perspective on ethics. Next,i consider Physical Literacy which I suggest is an existentialist philosophicalperpective that could form the basis of a new pedagogical model. It is argued,in conclusion, the means to facilitate a wide range of diverse individual andsocial educational ‘goods’.