INTRODUCTION the university and students. This literature review

INTRODUCTIONNowadays,the considerably increasing number of universities leads to the highcompetitiveness among them. Thus, the university marketing is essential toattract the students’ notice. University should analyse all the customers’needs, wants, demands to create the effective marketing strategy throughappropriate communication materials. At the same time university shouldcontrol, review, evaluate, learn from experience to get more specificsolutions; connect and communicate to the future potential students in order toachieve the success for both the university and students.Thisliterature review aims to examine the higher educational institution’smarketing message and their influence on students’ institutional selection.

Thebeginning of the review is the examination of the literature concerningintegrated marketing communication (IMC) in higher education. This is followedwith exploration of literature on IMC message, focusing on customer specificinformation, brand identity and the negative impact in IMC message. Then, thereview explores students’ perception and theoretical background. Finally, theliterature review finished with the summary, which signals the research gap andthe research question to guide the study. 1.2Communication materials and Technology in Marketing1.2.1Communication materialsCommunicationis the process of producing and exchanging the meanings verbally, inconjunction with visual and written materials.

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According to Locke (1990:2)communication is defined as “the practice of social relationships” to emphasizeon the essentiality of social relationships. Communications play an importantrole in our social daily lives. Normally, two ways communication can beacknowledged as a shared communication, and shared communication can be definedas ordinary agreement. Understanding the receiver’s needs, desires,expectations and perception is essential for effective communication. Sendershould have the ability to examine the receiver accurately, in order toidentify needs and desires which are required. If the process is formedaccurately, both the sender and receiver may create effective communication.(Terkan 2013)Whentrying to understand the consumers’ needs and wants, discovering the necessarytools and materials used for determining the consumer needs and wants togetheris crucial. Organizations need to determine the characteristics andexpectations of consumers by using different tools to maximize consumersatisfaction.

Therefore, they can provide useful products and services toconsumers. (Terkan 2013)Written communication involves any type of message that makes use of thewritten word. Visual communication is the communication throughthe visual aids. Pathak (2007:252) argued “with visual communication, charts,graphs etc. are easily grasped and understood by the viewers and makescomparisons easy”. Visual materials along with written materials are importantin marketing. Visual and written materials have a great effect on consumers. Hence,these materials should be prepared carefully.

We need to consider thesocio-cultural background of the consumer. Visual and written materials shouldbe remarkable and unforgettable and should leave an image in consumers’ mind.Consumers’ cultural beliefs also need to be deliberated on written and visualcommunication. Written and visual communication materials suitable forconsumers’ culture can lead to their detection and acceptance. Communicationmaterials are efficient in marketing, they are like powerful means and they areinfluential for every organization even in higher education in the world. Thedecision making process of students is affected by communication materials.Students are affected by the materials, which may change their previous ideasabout choosing university. (Terkan 2013)1.

2.2. Technology Thanksto the development of the technology, the communication among people becomefaster and easier than it was before. Nowadays, computer, laptop or smart phoneare the most used tool to receive, download or upload the information via theinternet. Owing to the internet, many sections of marketing are created. Inhigher education, CDs, catalogue, brochures, especially web pages via internetare utilised to approach the students from every corners of the world.

Amongall the communication materials, internet and university websites can be themost effective tool to adjust students attitude by showing the highuniversities ranking and their accomplishments. Besides, universities shouldnotice and analyse the demands, needs and wants of the students before usingany communication materials.(Terkan 2013) Especially in recent times, the boost quantityof universities causes the high rate of the competition among universities.Thus, following the technological development is significant so as to develop,to please their students and to gain the competitiveness with other educationalinstitution. Therefore, outstanding materials created by developed technologyattract the recognition of customers. Communication through changing anddeveloping technologies link different countries together. Moreover, thanks totechnological change and development, communication process changed in bothinterpersonal and inter-communal relations as well. (Terkan 2013)1.

3Impact on integrated marketing communicationForthe purpose of this study, the adequate definition of IMC will be “a strategicbusiness process used to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate coordinated,measurable, persuasive brand communication programs over time with consumers,prospects, and other targeted, relevant external and internal audiences”(Schultz & Schultz, 2004, p. 20). Schultz and Schultz (2004) claim IMC isimproved through a four stage framework, “progressing from a highly practical,tactical orientation to one increasingly driven by an understanding ofcustomers and their behaviors” (p. 21). “Once the IMC program was in place,they moved progressively to questions about coordinating internal and externalactivities; using customer data to drive priorities; and finally applying IMCprinciples to strategic issues such as resource allocation, organizationalalignment, and financial integration and accountability.” (Schultz1997, September/October, Edmiston-Strasser 2009) “Muchof the dysfunction in today’s educational market derives from the fact thatmost educational consumers are not well-informed shoppers” (Zemsky, Shaman,& Shapiro, 2001, p.

73). However, IMC can solve this problem bytransferring the best academy information combining the effectivecommunications materials and suitable, targeted messages. Thus, university candraw the attention of a huge number of qualified students. The increasing ofbetter-quality student may improve the institutional educational quality andscore the university higher position in the market. (Edmiston-Strasser, 2007)References:Edmiston-Strasser, D. M.


M. (2009). An Examination of Integrated Marketing Communication in U.S.Public Institutions of Higher Education. Journalof Marketing for Higher Education, 143. Kim, I.

,Han, D., & Schultz, D. E.

. (2004, March). Understanding the diffusion ofintegrated marketing communications.Journal of Advertising Research, 44, 31-45.

Locke, J.(1990). Introduction to Communication Studies. 2nd edition.

. Pathak, B.V. (2007).

Industrial Psychology and Sociology. 5th Edition. Schultz, D.E.

, & Kitchen, P. J. .

(1997, September/October). Integrated marketingcommunications in U.S. advertising agencies: An exploratory study. Journal of Advertising Research, 7–18.

Terkan,R. (2013). Effective Marketing At Education: Importance of CommunicationMaterials. International Review ofManagement and Marketing, 146-149.  



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