INTRODUCTION the university and students. This literature review


the considerably increasing number of universities leads to the high
competitiveness among them. Thus, the university marketing is essential to
attract the students’ notice. University should analyse all the customers’
needs, wants, demands to create the effective marketing strategy through
appropriate communication materials. At the same time university should
control, review, evaluate, learn from experience to get more specific
solutions; connect and communicate to the future potential students in order to
achieve the success for both the university and students.

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literature review aims to examine the higher educational institution’s
marketing message and their influence on students’ institutional selection. The
beginning of the review is the examination of the literature concerning
integrated marketing communication (IMC) in higher education. This is followed
with exploration of literature on IMC message, focusing on customer specific
information, brand identity and the negative impact in IMC message. Then, the
review explores students’ perception and theoretical background. Finally, the
literature review finished with the summary, which signals the research gap and
the research question to guide the study.

Communication materials and Technology in Marketing

Communication materials

is the process of producing and exchanging the meanings verbally, in
conjunction with visual and written materials. According to Locke (1990:2)
communication is defined as “the practice of social relationships” to emphasize
on the essentiality of social relationships. Communications play an important
role in our social daily lives. Normally, two ways communication can be
acknowledged as a shared communication, and shared communication can be defined
as ordinary agreement. Understanding the receiver’s needs, desires,
expectations and perception is essential for effective communication. Sender
should have the ability to examine the receiver accurately, in order to
identify needs and desires which are required. If the process is formed
accurately, both the sender and receiver may create effective communication.(Terkan 2013)

trying to understand the consumers’ needs and wants, discovering the necessary
tools and materials used for determining the consumer needs and wants together
is crucial. Organizations need to determine the characteristics and
expectations of consumers by using different tools to maximize consumer
satisfaction. Therefore, they can provide useful products and services to
consumers. (Terkan 2013)

Written communication involves any type of message that makes use of the
written word. Visual communication is the communication through
the visual aids. Pathak (2007:252) argued “with visual communication, charts,
graphs etc. are easily grasped and understood by the viewers and makes
comparisons easy”. Visual materials along with written materials are important
in marketing. Visual and written materials have a great effect on consumers. Hence,
these materials should be prepared carefully. We need to consider the
socio-cultural background of the consumer. Visual and written materials should
be remarkable and unforgettable and should leave an image in consumers’ mind.
Consumers’ cultural beliefs also need to be deliberated on written and visual
communication. Written and visual communication materials suitable for
consumers’ culture can lead to their detection and acceptance. Communication
materials are efficient in marketing, they are like powerful means and they are
influential for every organization even in higher education in the world. The
decision making process of students is affected by communication materials.
Students are affected by the materials, which may change their previous ideas
about choosing university. (Terkan 2013)

1.2.2. Technology

to the development of the technology, the communication among people become
faster and easier than it was before. Nowadays, computer, laptop or smart phone
are the most used tool to receive, download or upload the information via the
internet. Owing to the internet, many sections of marketing are created. In
higher education, CDs, catalogue, brochures, especially web pages via internet
are utilised to approach the students from every corners of the world. Among
all the communication materials, internet and university websites can be the
most effective tool to adjust students attitude by showing the high
universities ranking and their accomplishments. Besides, universities should
notice and analyse the demands, needs and wants of the students before using
any communication materials.(Terkan 2013)

 Especially in recent times, the boost quantity
of universities causes the high rate of the competition among universities.
Thus, following the technological development is significant so as to develop,
to please their students and to gain the competitiveness with other educational
institution. Therefore, outstanding materials created by developed technology
attract the recognition of customers. Communication through changing and
developing technologies link different countries together. Moreover, thanks to
technological change and development, communication process changed in both
interpersonal and inter-communal relations as well. (Terkan 2013)

Impact on integrated marketing communication

the purpose of this study, the adequate definition of IMC will be “a strategic
business process used to plan, develop, execute, and evaluate coordinated,
measurable, persuasive brand communication programs over time with consumers,
prospects, and other targeted, relevant external and internal audiences”
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004, p. 20). Schultz and Schultz (2004) claim IMC is
improved through a four stage framework, “progressing from a highly practical,
tactical orientation to one increasingly driven by an understanding of
customers and their behaviors” (p. 21). “Once the IMC program was in place,
they moved progressively to questions about coordinating internal and external
activities; using customer data to drive priorities; and finally applying IMC
principles to strategic issues such as resource allocation, organizational
alignment, and financial integration and accountability.” (Schultz
1997, September/October, Edmiston-Strasser 2009)

of the dysfunction in today’s educational market derives from the fact that
most educational consumers are not well-informed shoppers” (Zemsky, Shaman,
& Shapiro, 2001, p. 73). However, IMC can solve this problem by
transferring the best academy information combining the effective
communications materials and suitable, targeted messages. Thus, university can
draw the attention of a huge number of qualified students. The increasing of
better-quality student may improve the institutional educational quality and
score the university higher position in the market. (Edmiston-Strasser, 2007)


Edmiston-Strasser, D. M. (2007). AN EXAMINATION OF


D. M. (2009). An Examination of Integrated Marketing Communication in U.S.
Public Institutions of Higher Education. Journal
of Marketing for Higher Education, 143.

Kim, I.,
Han, D., & Schultz, D. E. . (2004, March). Understanding the diffusion of
integrated marketing communications.
Journal of Advertising Research, 44, 31-45.

Locke, J.
(1990). Introduction to Communication Studies. 2nd edition. .

Pathak, B.
V. (2007). Industrial Psychology and Sociology. 5th Edition.

Schultz, D.
E., & Kitchen, P. J. . (1997, September/October). Integrated marketing
communications in U.S. advertising agencies: An exploratory study. Journal of Advertising Research, 7–18.

R. (2013). Effective Marketing At Education: Importance of Communication
Materials. International Review of
Management and Marketing, 146-149.




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