Introduction: time or deadline specified in the contract.

Introduction:

 

The delay is a common and
major problem in the construction industry of Pakistan affecting the overall
economy and well-being of country. In Pakistan, the construction industry has
some shortcomings such as poor understanding of the project’s scope, lack of
availability of modern equipment and machinery, incompetent contractors, unsuitable
design, unrealistic time-lines, inconsistent funds availability, area
encroachment, political conflicts etc.  The delay in construction is the
challenge often faced at the time of execution of projects. Moreover, with the
government projects like mega-infrastructure projects (roads and bridges), the
hydropower projects, the thermal power projects, or the low income housing
projects; the delays become more common and cause serious issues. This problem
directly affects the lives, social welfare of the people as well as the other
negative social impacts. In Pakistan, there are few cases that government
construction projects completed on time or deadline specified in the contract.
There are many large construction projects suffered very serious delays,
suspension or abandonment including:  Neelam Jehlum Project, Orange Line
project, Islamabad International Airport, Karakorum Highway, Tarbela Dam
Extension projects, Mangla Dam Raising Projects, Transmission Line Project,
Metro Bus Project, Thar Coal project etc.

Based on the above discussion, the main objectives of this study
include the following:

Ø 
To identify factors affecting the delay in the government
construction projects in Pakistan.

Ø 
To assess impact of the delay factors on project completion time
by ranking them.

Ø 
 Remedial Measures thereto the factors affecting completion timeline.

Ø 
Level to control the delay and developing conceptual model.

It is
expected that the findings of the study will provide the significant
understanding to the project managers so that they may formulate policies to
overcome the issues which cause delay and to avoid the negative outcomes of
delay in project completion.

Methodology:

This
research is based on survey regarding the views of experts in construction
industry. The questionnaire survey was done on the behalf of the delay causes.
There were two parts of the questionnaire, Part A and Part B. Part A mainly
focuses at the respondent’s personal information, whether categorized as rep.
on behalf of client, consultant, contractor, subcontractor, suppliers etc. and
how much work experiences the respond is, what type of association in which he
is working. Part B is related about the information related to causes and
factors of delays in construction projects of Pakistan. A survey is conducted
through email or interviewing to almost 125 participants. The participants
mostly include distributed in Government, private and semi Government
organization out of which one hundred and twenty were given response and in
some organization, I had taken interviews vocally by the reps of private firms.
The respondents were asked about the grading and scoring of the causes and
factors of delay. After the analysis of this data, the recommendations were
made to counter these problems.  The
grading and scoring of delay factors relevant to competence, exposure to
projects and expertise of respondents.

Questionnaire Part-A:
Respondent’s Background

Top of Form

1. What is your current Job
Designation?

 

2. How long have you been working
in the Construction Industry?

ð       0-5
years

ð       5-10
years

ð       10-20
years

ð       20-30
years

ð      
More than 30 years

 

 

 

3. What
is the highest level of education you have?

 

Construction

Non-construction

No formal education

ð    
No formal
education Construction

ð      
No formal
education Non-construction

Diploma/ Certificate

ð    
Diploma/ Certificate Construction

ð      
Diploma/
Certificate Non-construction

Undergraduate Degree

ð    
Undergraduate
Degree Construction

ð      
Undergraduate
Degree Non-construction

Postgraduate Degree

ð    
Postgraduate
Degree Construction

ð      
Postgraduate
Degree Non-construction

 

4. Which option best describes
your Company’s operation?

ð       Contractor

ð       Consultant/Designer

ð      
Client

ð      
Sub-contractor

ð      
Supplier

5. Which Construction sector your
company deals in?

ð       Buildings

ð       Roads
and Highways

ð       Power
Generation/Distribution System

ð       Telecommunication

ð      
Other (please
specify:———————————————–)

6. How many employees does your
Company have?

ð       Less
than 50

ð       50-100

ð       100-500

ð       500-1000

ð      
More than 1000

7. What is the average projects
cost you have worked on?

ð       0-10
million PKR

ð       10-100
million PKR

ð       100-1000
million PKR

ð       1000-2000
million PKR

ð      
More than 2000 million PKR

8. What percentage of projects
during your career have you been involved in that have overrun in terms of
time?

ð       0%

ð       1-25%

ð       26-50
%

ð       51-75
%

ð       More
than 75%

ð      
Don’t know

Questionnaire
Part-B: Respondent’s Background

Section
B: Causes of Delays

Please
rank the following causes of delays according to their significance level in
terms of their frequency and impact on the overall time and cost of
construction Projects:Top of Form

9. Financial
disorders

 

Insignificant

Less
Significant

Significant

Very
Significant

Late payments

 

 

 

 

Price Hike

 

 

 

 

High Tax on construction

 

 

 

 

 

10. Improper
Management Procedures

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Variations
in design/work

 

 

 

 

Slowness
of decision making process

 

 

 

 

Late
inspection and testing

 

 

 

 

Inadequate
control procedures

 

 

 

 

Non-adherence
to contract conditions

 

 

 

 

11. Lack
of Skills / Abilities

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Incompetence to technical enquiries

 

 

 

 

Errors in construction / design

 

 

 

 

Inadequate experience

 

 

 

 

Previous working relations

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Lack
of Resources – Material

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Shortage of material

 

 

 

 

Delay in material delivery

 

 

 

 

Late procurement of material

 

 

 

 

13. Lack
of Resources – Equipment

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Lack of
equipment

 

 

 

 

Low
productivity of equipment

 

 

 

 

Equipment
breakdowns

 

 

 

 

14. Lack
of Resources – Labour

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Shortage
of labour

 

 

 

 

Low
productivity level of work

 

 

 

 

Labour
personal conflict

 

 

 

 

Nationality
of labour

 

 

 

 

 

15. External
Delays

 

Insignificant

Less Significant

Significant

Very Significant

Changing Climate

 

 

 

 

Security Area permits

 

 

 

 

Accidents during construction

 

 

 

 

Natural disaster

 

 

 

 

Unavailability of utilities at
site

 

 

 

 

Changes in Laws and Regulations

 

 

 

 

Economic Conditions

 

 

 

 

 

16. Which party / parties do you
think is usually responsible for the following issues?

 

Client

Consultant

Contractor

Government

Natural/Act of God

Financial
disorders

 

 

 

 

 

Lack
of Resources

 

 

 

 

 

Improper
Management Procedures

 

 

 

 

 

Lack
of Skills/Abilities

 

 

 

 

 

External
Delays

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. How much do you think the
proper project planning done prior to the execution can eliminate or reduce the
following causes?

 

Highly

Moderately

Very less

Not at all

Financial
disorders

 

 

 

 

Lack of Resources

 

 

 

 

Improper
Management Procedures

 

 

 

 

Lack of
Skills/Abilities

 

 

 

 

External Delays

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis and Results:

The data was collected
during a time period of about 45 days. The distribution and collection
of survey questionnaire was done parallel. Total 47 questionnaires were
distributed out of which 44 responses were collected. Out of 44
respondents, 02 responses were discarded due to incomplete information.
At the end total response rate was estimated to be 89.67%.

The distribution shows that contractors, clients, and
consultants / Designers are main parties for data collection. The summary of
general information of the respondents is tabulated as below:

 

 

 

CAT

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Operational
Background

Contractor

19

45.2

Consultant/Designer

9

21.4

Client

11

26.2

Sub
contractor

2

4.8

Suppliers

1

2.4

Nature
of Works

Building

27

64.3

Roads
and Highways

12

28.6

Power
Generation and Distribution

1

2.4

Telecommunication

0

0.0

Others

0

0.0

 

However, in this study, factors like relevant experience,
Education level, No. of projects subject to delay and cost of project have been
incorporated by assigning certain reduction factor to each category as mentioned
below:

 

 

CAT

Relevant Reduction Factor

 
 
Approx Cost of Project (Currently working on) (A)

0-10 M

0.1

10 M-100 M

0.2

100 M-1000 M

0.5

1000 M- 2000 M

1

More
than 2000 M

1

Education Level (B)

No Education

0.2

DAE

0.5

Bachelor Degree

0.75

Master Degree

0.9

Doctoral Degree

1.0

Experience ( C)

0-5 years

0.5

5-10 years

0.75

10-20 years

0.8

20-30 years

0.9

More than 30 years

1.0

 
 
Percentage of projects subject to time delay (D)

0
%

0

1-25
%

0.25

26-50%

0.5

51-75
%

0.75

More
than 75%

1

 

The contribution of each of the factors to overall delays was
examined and the ranking of the attributes in terms of their criticality as
perceived by the respondents was done by use of Relative Importance Index (RII)
which was computed using equation (i) as under:

(i)

Where:

W – is the weight given to each factor by the respondents and
ranges from 1 to 5, (where “1” is “strongly disagree” and “5” is “strongly
agree”)

A – the highest weight (i.e. 5 in this case) and;

N – the total number of respondents?

 Now RII computed for
each cause are mentioned tabulated as under:

S/No.

CAT

Factor

RII

1

Financial Disorders

Late payments

0.89

2

Price Hike

0.71

3

High Tax on
construction

0.52

4

Improper Management procedure

Variations in
design/work

0.91

5

Slowness of decision
making process

0.88

6

Late inspection and
testing

0.74

7

Inadequate control
procedures

0.69

8

Non-adherence to
contract conditions

0.76

9

Lack of Skills/ abilities

Incompetence to
technical enquiries

0.81

10

Errors in
construction/design

0.91

11

Inadequate experience

0.75

12

Previous working
relations

0.65

13

Lack of Resources-Material

Shortage of material

0.8

14

Delay in material
delivery

0.74

15

Late procurement of
material

0.82

16

Lack of Resources-Equipment

Lack of equipment

0.74

17

Low productivity of
equipment

0.72

18

Equipment breakdowns

0.82

19

Lack of Resources-Labour

Shortage of labour

0.79

20

Low productivity level
of work

0.56

21

Labour personal
conflict

0.52

22

Nationality of labour

0.65

23

External Delays

Changing Climate

0.76

24

Security Area permits

0.87

25

Accidents during
construction

0.71

26

Natural disaster

0.65

27

Unavailability of
utilities at site

0.87

28

Changes in Laws and
Regulations

0.59

29

Economic Conditions

0.8

 

Based on RII, causing delay in construction project are
ranked as under:

Factor

RII

Rank

Variations in design /
work

0.91

1

Errors in construction
/ design

0.91

2

Late payments

0.89

3

Slowness of decision
making process

0.88

4

Security Area permits

0.87

5

Unavailability of
utilities at site

0.87

6

Late procurement of
material

0.82

7

Equipment breakdowns

0.82

8

Incompetence to
technical enquiries

0.81

9

Shortage of material

0.8

10

Economic Conditions

0.8

11

Shortage of labour

0.79

12

Non-adherence to
contract conditions

0.76

13

Changing Climate

0.76

14

Inadequate experience

0.75

15

Late inspection and
testing

0.74

16

Delay in material
delivery

0.74

17

Lack of equipment

0.74

18

Low productivity of equipment

0.72

19

Price Hike

0.71

20

Accidents during
construction

0.71

21

Inadequate control
procedures

0.69

22

Previous working
relations

0.65

23

Nationality of labour

0.65

24

Natural disaster

0.65

25

Changes in Laws and
Regulations

0.59

26

Low productivity level
of work

0.56

27

High Tax on
construction

0.52

28

Labour personal
conflict

0.52

29

 

Conclusion:

The survey results indicated that the majority of delay
factors are relevant to client. It is concluded from survey for dipping in
delay, client must have strong economical ability and financial arrangement for
project and correctly time decision. He must give proper time and priority on his
construction project and taking appropriately time verdict. Most factors
related to consultant are due to not understanding the client requirements, not
having proper project information, absence of some details in drawings etc. It
is examined from survey that mostly delays occurred at contractor’s side because
of deficient in obtaining up-to-date equipment, unwarranted material used in
construction. Due to which cause of dispute occur in construction so it is
necessary that excellent material must be used in construction. Availability of
material is one of the most significant causes due to which delay occurs in
construction so it is essential that material supply must be on time. From
survey it is predicted that some delays occur in projects due to shortage of
labors. There may be variation among labors, injuries, and low yield of work.
In other factors due to which delay occurs are project conditions like site,
complexity, complication in work due to weather. Delay also occurs due to
external factors like change in government, regulation and location etc. Client
must be mentally and financially strong for starting a new project due to which
we can reduce delay in projects.

RECOMMENDATIONS

To decrease the delay in construction project following particulars are
very significant. It is suggested that vendor must be given imbursement to
contractor at time because it is liability of contractor to manage the economic
record and due to which work growth is efficient. For decreasing delay in
project, diminish the change in drawing during the construction. It is
necessary for contractor that by increasing number of labors productivity must
be increased. For reducing delay in project, contractor must have knowledge
about his resources strength and obtain up-to-date Machinery, and try to obtain
new equipment for construction. It is contractor liability that he must manage
the capital resources throughout the project and use it appropriately because
he doesn’t countenance economic and cash flow problems. For reducing delay
managerial and technical staff should be acquired for site management and
supervision. It is necessary to include skilled and experienced workers in
staff because of them the performance of work is improved. For completion of
project it is necessary that client must be fait on contractor and consultant.
In Pakistan mostly delay occur in large construction projects is because of
change of government due to which construction is stopped and new government
propose new design for construction as well as bills are not easily cleared.

Author: