Introduction: The delay is a common andmajor problem in the construction industry of Pakistan affecting the overalleconomy and well-being of country. In Pakistan, the construction industry hassome shortcomings such as poor understanding of the project’s scope, lack ofavailability of modern equipment and machinery, incompetent contractors, unsuitabledesign, unrealistic time-lines, inconsistent funds availability, areaencroachment, political conflicts etc. The delay in construction is thechallenge often faced at the time of execution of projects.
Moreover, with thegovernment projects like mega-infrastructure projects (roads and bridges), thehydropower projects, the thermal power projects, or the low income housingprojects; the delays become more common and cause serious issues. This problemdirectly affects the lives, social welfare of the people as well as the othernegative social impacts. In Pakistan, there are few cases that governmentconstruction projects completed on time or deadline specified in the contract.
There are many large construction projects suffered very serious delays,suspension or abandonment including: Neelam Jehlum Project, Orange Lineproject, Islamabad International Airport, Karakorum Highway, Tarbela DamExtension projects, Mangla Dam Raising Projects, Transmission Line Project,Metro Bus Project, Thar Coal project etc.Based on the above discussion, the main objectives of this studyinclude the following:Ø To identify factors affecting the delay in the governmentconstruction projects in Pakistan.Ø To assess impact of the delay factors on project completion timeby ranking them.Ø Remedial Measures thereto the factors affecting completion timeline.Ø Level to control the delay and developing conceptual model.It isexpected that the findings of the study will provide the significantunderstanding to the project managers so that they may formulate policies toovercome the issues which cause delay and to avoid the negative outcomes ofdelay in project completion.Methodology:Thisresearch is based on survey regarding the views of experts in constructionindustry. The questionnaire survey was done on the behalf of the delay causes.
There were two parts of the questionnaire, Part A and Part B. Part A mainlyfocuses at the respondent’s personal information, whether categorized as rep.on behalf of client, consultant, contractor, subcontractor, suppliers etc. andhow much work experiences the respond is, what type of association in which heis working. Part B is related about the information related to causes andfactors of delays in construction projects of Pakistan. A survey is conductedthrough email or interviewing to almost 125 participants. The participantsmostly include distributed in Government, private and semi Governmentorganization out of which one hundred and twenty were given response and insome organization, I had taken interviews vocally by the reps of private firms.The respondents were asked about the grading and scoring of the causes andfactors of delay.
After the analysis of this data, the recommendations weremade to counter these problems. Thegrading and scoring of delay factors relevant to competence, exposure toprojects and expertise of respondents.Questionnaire Part-A:Respondent’s BackgroundTop of Form1. What is your current JobDesignation? 2.
How long have you been workingin the Construction Industry?ð 0-5yearsð 5-10yearsð 10-20yearsð 20-30yearsð More than 30 years 3. Whatis the highest level of education you have? Construction Non-construction No formal education ð No formal education Construction ð No formal education Non-construction Diploma/ Certificate ð Diploma/ Certificate Construction ð Diploma/ Certificate Non-construction Undergraduate Degree ð Undergraduate Degree Construction ð Undergraduate Degree Non-construction Postgraduate Degree ð Postgraduate Degree Construction ð Postgraduate Degree Non-construction 4. Which option best describesyour Company’s operation?ð Contractorð Consultant/Designerð Clientð Sub-contractorð Supplier5. Which Construction sector yourcompany deals in?ð Buildingsð Roadsand Highwaysð PowerGeneration/Distribution Systemð Telecommunicationð Other (pleasespecify:———————————————–)6. How many employees does yourCompany have?ð Lessthan 50ð 50-100ð 100-500ð 500-1000ð More than 10007. What is the average projectscost you have worked on?ð 0-10million PKRð 10-100million PKRð 100-1000million PKRð 1000-2000million PKRð More than 2000 million PKR8. What percentage of projectsduring your career have you been involved in that have overrun in terms oftime?ð 0%ð 1-25%ð 26-50%ð 51-75%ð Morethan 75%ð Don’t knowQuestionnairePart-B: Respondent’s BackgroundSectionB: Causes of DelaysPleaserank the following causes of delays according to their significance level interms of their frequency and impact on the overall time and cost ofconstruction Projects:Top of Form9. Financialdisorders Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Late payments Price Hike High Tax on construction 10.
ImproperManagement Procedures Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Variations in design/work Slowness of decision making process Late inspection and testing Inadequate control procedures Non-adherence to contract conditions 11. Lackof Skills / Abilities Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Incompetence to technical enquiries Errors in construction / design Inadequate experience Previous working relations 12. Lackof Resources – Material Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Shortage of material Delay in material delivery Late procurement of material 13. Lackof Resources – Equipment Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Lack of equipment Low productivity of equipment Equipment breakdowns 14. Lackof Resources – Labour Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Shortage of labour Low productivity level of work Labour personal conflict Nationality of labour 15. ExternalDelays Insignificant Less Significant Significant Very Significant Changing Climate Security Area permits Accidents during construction Natural disaster Unavailability of utilities at site Changes in Laws and Regulations Economic Conditions 16. Which party / parties do youthink is usually responsible for the following issues? Client Consultant Contractor Government Natural/Act of God Financial disorders Lack of Resources Improper Management Procedures Lack of Skills/Abilities External Delays 17.
How much do you think theproper project planning done prior to the execution can eliminate or reduce thefollowing causes? Highly Moderately Very less Not at all Financial disorders Lack of Resources Improper Management Procedures Lack of Skills/Abilities External Delays Data Analysis and Results:The data was collectedduring a time period of about 45 days. The distribution and collectionof survey questionnaire was done parallel. Total 47 questionnaires weredistributed out of which 44 responses were collected. Out of 44respondents, 02 responses were discarded due to incomplete information.At the end total response rate was estimated to be 89.67%.
The distribution shows that contractors, clients, andconsultants / Designers are main parties for data collection. The summary ofgeneral information of the respondents is tabulated as below: CAT Frequency Percentage (%) Operational Background Contractor 19 45.2 Consultant/Designer 9 21.4 Client 11 26.
2 Sub contractor 2 4.8 Suppliers 1 2.4 Nature of Works Building 27 64.3 Roads and Highways 12 28.6 Power Generation and Distribution 1 2.4 Telecommunication 0 0.0 Others 0 0.
0 However, in this study, factors like relevant experience,Education level, No. of projects subject to delay and cost of project have beenincorporated by assigning certain reduction factor to each category as mentionedbelow: CAT Relevant Reduction Factor Approx Cost of Project (Currently working on) (A) 0-10 M 0.1 10 M-100 M 0.2 100 M-1000 M 0.
5 1000 M- 2000 M 1 More than 2000 M 1 Education Level (B) No Education 0.2 DAE 0.5 Bachelor Degree 0.75 Master Degree 0.9 Doctoral Degree 1.0 Experience ( C) 0-5 years 0.5 5-10 years 0.75 10-20 years 0.
8 20-30 years 0.9 More than 30 years 1.0 Percentage of projects subject to time delay (D) 0 % 0 1-25 % 0.25 26-50% 0.5 51-75 % 0.
75 More than 75% 1 The contribution of each of the factors to overall delays wasexamined and the ranking of the attributes in terms of their criticality asperceived by the respondents was done by use of Relative Importance Index (RII)which was computed using equation (i) as under: (i) Where:W – is the weight given to each factor by the respondents andranges from 1 to 5, (where “1” is “strongly disagree” and “5” is “stronglyagree”)A – the highest weight (i.e. 5 in this case) and;N – the total number of respondents? Now RII computed foreach cause are mentioned tabulated as under: S/No.
CAT Factor RII 1 Financial Disorders Late payments 0.89 2 Price Hike 0.71 3 High Tax on construction 0.52 4 Improper Management procedure Variations in design/work 0.91 5 Slowness of decision making process 0.
88 6 Late inspection and testing 0.74 7 Inadequate control procedures 0.69 8 Non-adherence to contract conditions 0.
76 9 Lack of Skills/ abilities Incompetence to technical enquiries 0.81 10 Errors in construction/design 0.91 11 Inadequate experience 0.75 12 Previous working relations 0.65 13 Lack of Resources-Material Shortage of material 0.
8 14 Delay in material delivery 0.74 15 Late procurement of material 0.82 16 Lack of Resources-Equipment Lack of equipment 0.74 17 Low productivity of equipment 0.72 18 Equipment breakdowns 0.82 19 Lack of Resources-Labour Shortage of labour 0.79 20 Low productivity level of work 0.56 21 Labour personal conflict 0.
52 22 Nationality of labour 0.65 23 External Delays Changing Climate 0.76 24 Security Area permits 0.87 25 Accidents during construction 0.71 26 Natural disaster 0.65 27 Unavailability of utilities at site 0.
87 28 Changes in Laws and Regulations 0.59 29 Economic Conditions 0.8 Based on RII, causing delay in construction project areranked as under: Factor RII Rank Variations in design / work 0.91 1 Errors in construction / design 0.91 2 Late payments 0.89 3 Slowness of decision making process 0.
88 4 Security Area permits 0.87 5 Unavailability of utilities at site 0.87 6 Late procurement of material 0.82 7 Equipment breakdowns 0.82 8 Incompetence to technical enquiries 0.81 9 Shortage of material 0.8 10 Economic Conditions 0.
8 11 Shortage of labour 0.79 12 Non-adherence to contract conditions 0.76 13 Changing Climate 0.76 14 Inadequate experience 0.75 15 Late inspection and testing 0.74 16 Delay in material delivery 0.74 17 Lack of equipment 0.74 18 Low productivity of equipment 0.
72 19 Price Hike 0.71 20 Accidents during construction 0.71 21 Inadequate control procedures 0.69 22 Previous working relations 0.65 23 Nationality of labour 0.
65 24 Natural disaster 0.65 25 Changes in Laws and Regulations 0.59 26 Low productivity level of work 0.56 27 High Tax on construction 0.52 28 Labour personal conflict 0.52 29 Conclusion:The survey results indicated that the majority of delayfactors are relevant to client.
It is concluded from survey for dipping indelay, client must have strong economical ability and financial arrangement forproject and correctly time decision. He must give proper time and priority on hisconstruction project and taking appropriately time verdict. Most factorsrelated to consultant are due to not understanding the client requirements, nothaving proper project information, absence of some details in drawings etc. Itis examined from survey that mostly delays occurred at contractor’s side becauseof deficient in obtaining up-to-date equipment, unwarranted material used inconstruction.
Due to which cause of dispute occur in construction so it isnecessary that excellent material must be used in construction. Availability ofmaterial is one of the most significant causes due to which delay occurs inconstruction so it is essential that material supply must be on time. Fromsurvey it is predicted that some delays occur in projects due to shortage oflabors. There may be variation among labors, injuries, and low yield of work.
In other factors due to which delay occurs are project conditions like site,complexity, complication in work due to weather. Delay also occurs due toexternal factors like change in government, regulation and location etc. Clientmust be mentally and financially strong for starting a new project due to whichwe can reduce delay in projects. RECOMMENDATIONSTo decrease the delay in construction project following particulars arevery significant.
It is suggested that vendor must be given imbursement tocontractor at time because it is liability of contractor to manage the economicrecord and due to which work growth is efficient. For decreasing delay inproject, diminish the change in drawing during the construction. It isnecessary for contractor that by increasing number of labors productivity mustbe increased. For reducing delay in project, contractor must have knowledgeabout his resources strength and obtain up-to-date Machinery, and try to obtainnew equipment for construction.
It is contractor liability that he must managethe capital resources throughout the project and use it appropriately becausehe doesn’t countenance economic and cash flow problems. For reducing delaymanagerial and technical staff should be acquired for site management andsupervision. It is necessary to include skilled and experienced workers instaff because of them the performance of work is improved. For completion ofproject it is necessary that client must be fait on contractor and consultant.In Pakistan mostly delay occur in large construction projects is because ofchange of government due to which construction is stopped and new governmentpropose new design for construction as well as bills are not easily cleared.