IntroductionWave energy has potential to become one type of the renewable energy source in Malaysia. In 2010, the electrical demands for all Malaysia was about 20,087MW Due to the technological challenges, wave energy was late beginning compare with other renewable energy source which include oil, natural gas, hydro and others.
However, wave energy was one type of renewable energy that was clean and also available around Malaysia’s coastline. Malaysia was the 29th longest coastline country in the world, It was an island vastly surrounded by sea. Malaysia coastline length is about 4,675 kilometers which means it has huge potential to generate electrical energy by using wave energy.
The sea depth surrounded Malaysia is generally lower than 100metres. Malaysia is geographically situated between 10 and 70 in the North latitude and 1000 and 1200 in the East longitude. There are nine basic techniques to convert wave energy which includes surging wave energy converters particle motion converters, Salter’s duck, heaving and pitching bodies, cavity resonators or oscillating water column, Russell’s rectifier , pressure devices, wave focusing techniques and Cocke-rell’s rafts. Among this all techniques, we consider the oscillating water column (OWC) was the most reliable device to convert the wave energy.
Due to the coastal setting, Malaysia coastline is having a huge potential to generate the wave energy. Furthermore, by using OWC technology, we can abstract the energy from sea wave at a good average wave height and the wave period. (Samrat, Nahidul & Ahmad, Norhafizan & Choudhury, Imtiaz & Taha, Zahari. (2014).
Prospect of Wave Energy in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, PEOCO 2014. . 10.1109/PEOCO.
2014.6814412.)How Monsoon Season affect the ocean waveFor instance, East Malaysia possess suitable climate, wave height and coastline that was able to abstract wave energy. Malaysia is having 2 type monsoons due to geographic location. One of the monsoon is Northeast Monsoon, it happens when the blows from Central Asia to South China Sea and after that to Australia.
The Northeast Monsoon period is between November and March. Then the time move to the period between June and September, the wind blows from Australia across the Sumatara Island then going to the Strait of Malacca. This type of monsoon season is calling as Southwest Monsoon. The period and the height of sea waves around Malaysia coastline is generally affected by Monsoon season. One research was conducted in International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference.
This research is focusing on the condition of the wave and how much power can it generate around one of the coastline of Sarawak, Malaysia. However, the research just only simulation of abstraction of wave energy, which means, although the wave height and wave period are right but the power output just a conjecture based on the information obtained. (Samrat, Nahidul & Ahmad, Norhafizan & Choudhury, Imtiaz & Taha, Zahari. (2014). Prospect of Wave Energy in Malaysia.
Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, PEOCO 2014. . 10.1109/PEOCO.2014.
6814412.)By referring the figure above, the figure is showing the graph of wave versus the month. The line above in green color is showing monthly average period and the line below in blue color is showing monthly average height.
Looking the line above, we can notice that the peak of the average wave height is in January. Besides that, we look the line below can notice that the peak of the average wave period is in October. The highest average wave height which is in January has reached 1.56m with 4.
76s. However, the lowest average wave height which is in September only reached 0.59m which3.
95s. (Samrat, Nahidul & Ahmad, Norhafizan & Choudhury, Imtiaz & Taha, Zahari. (2014). Prospect of Wave Energy in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, PEOCO 2014. . 10.
1109/PEOCO.2014.6814412.)Figure above is showing mean wave power output of a year for Sarawak. The average power output throughout the entire year was 5kW per month.
Hence, the greatest wave power has been generated in January and December. This is how the Northeast Monsoon influence the wave of Malaysia and this shows that the Sarawak coastline is suitable to abstract wave energy because it possess the ability to do it. Besides the ocean wave energy, Sarawak had invented how to generate power by convert the tidal energy. The tidal energy was difference as ocean wave energy, wave was produced by interact the wind with the surface of the sea. However, the idea of converting tidal energy is exploit the natural ebb and flow of coastal tidal waters which is caused by interaction between the sun, moon and earth. Due to that interaction, the gravitational force was formed and the water level will changed in a certain period.
Therefore, different water level height and also the tide velocities will generate different potential tidal energy. These are the different between tidal energy and wave energy. Since we had converted the tidal energy into electrical energy, in other words, Sarawak is also possesses the ability to abstract the wave energy into electrical energy. (energy, n.
d.)Malaysia is divided into two parts, one is the East Malaysia and another is West Malaysia or peninsular Malaysia. Next, the report moves to potential of wave convert into electrical energy around the coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The research is taken at Merang shore, Terengganu.
In order to evaluate the potential wave energy, a complete experiment has been conducted at here. The instrument in this experiment is wave buoy. It was installed at the position where we want to investigate during low wave season. The wave period around Merang shore is similar as South China Sea about 4.5seconds and the wave amplitude was 0.5m. (Koto, 2016)Hmax= maximum height waveHmean = mean of height of waveThe figure above shows the circumstance of ocean wave around this shore during a year.
From the bar chart above, we can notice that the maximum height of wave is 5m. However, the mean height of ocean wave during the entire year only 0.95m. (Koto, 2016)Wave Power and ExpenseBefore we start to abstract the wave energy from the ocean, we need to estimate how much fund do we need to cost at this field. As mention before, the total electrical energy demand in Malaysia was 20,087MW, so we need to produce either same or more amount of electrical energy to fulfil the demands.
Malaysia average wave power throughout a year is 8.5 kW/ month, therefore, it was a big challenge for wave energy conversion in Malaysia. Oscillating Water Column (OWC) is more suitable and ideal device for the conversion of wave energy in Malaysia. Each 30m2 OWC device contain two 250kW generator, which can produce a 500kW power. The efficiency of OWC device is 48% , so the output is 0.
48 X 500 = 240kW. Each device will operate about 720 hours in a year, thus, the total output is 240kW x720hours = 1728MWh. Hence, 30units in 1 km2 will produce 30 x 240 =7.2MW. Malaysia has 4,675km long coastline with 46,750km2 coastal area.
Therefore, the total generation of wave energy will be about 46750x 7.2 = 336600 MW. By using this outcome, if 7% of energy is harvested, approximately 23562 MW of energy will produced, which can definitely fulfil the demands of Malaysia. This how can we satisfy our electrical energy demands if Malaysia able to use suitable coastline wisely.
After that, we need to consider some cost factor in operation of abstraction wave energy. Fixed expenses which is the initial investment including installation fees, taxes and else. These all unchangeable fees for an OWC device is around 1.3 million USD. Besides that, the maintenance and operating cost is 3000 USD per year. However, the total cost can be discount 30% if install 100 or more units of OWC device.
OWC device has a lifetime which is 20 years or more than that. Thus, the total cost can be calculated as below:Initial investment = 1300000 x 100= 130million dollarMaintenance and operating fee per year = 3000 x 100= 300000 dollar.Assume the lifetime is 20 years, cost per year = (130000000/20) + 300000= 6.8 million dollarActual cost after 30% discount = 6800000 x 0.7= 4760000dollar.
Now we have the actual cost and the total power output of 100 units OWC device. Thus, we can calculate the cost per kWh.Cost per kWh = (4760000/1728000000)=0.275 USD / kWhLast but not least, if the Malaysia capable to afford this fees, in the financial view, Malaysia was able to abstract the wave energy.A developing country was urgently needs power in socio-economic. In most of the island in Malaysia are still unavailable with national grid. Thus, it was no difficult to imagine why our growth rate of economic and education very slow. However, Malaysia possess a lot of energy resource, as one of the resource, wave energy can be one of the most reliable resource for these islands since the islands were surrounded by sea.
(Samrat, Nahidul & Ahmad, Norhafizan & Choudhury, Imtiaz & Taha, Zahari. (2014). Prospect of Wave Energy in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 8th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference, PEOCO 2014. .
10.1109/PEOCO.2014.6814412.)Reference link http://isomase.org/IJERCE/Vol.4%20Oct%202016/4-2.pdf http://www.sarawakenergy.com.my/index.php/r-d/tidal-energy https://ww