Kaneesha Organization (WHO) describes medication treatment as responsible










We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now















The World Health Organization (WHO) describes medication treatment
as responsible (relevant, precise and accurate) during a patients’ duration on
it and that the patient receives the appropriate treatment where applications
satisfy their specific conditions, for a sufficient period and at an
inexpensive cost (World Health Organization, 2002). Inappropriate use of
antibiotics is when one or numerous provisions listed above are not met. This
interpretation includes use by prescribers, distributors, and patients. The
purpose of this paper is to analyze data on how to contend the fraudulent and
improper use of antibiotics and other prescription therapies and to recommend
policies to help us move forward. While the definition from the WHO does also
include matters of safety and expense, this is not the key issues for this
paper and will not be heavily discussed in detail, but rather focus on the
inappropriate use and the effects it has.

improper use of antibiotic therapies entails the following:

Timing specific medication use in order to understand the amount
and standard of improper use;

Examining the latent causes of unsuitable use of antibiotics in
order to recognize the barriers to practice innovation and arbitrations that
may overwhelm these barriers;

Drafting, executing and appraising the above interventions that
focus on prescribing habits that need to be reform.

towards a policy climate that will promote antibiotics to be handled competently
and aid in the effectiveness of any interventions achieved.

it is noted that more than half of all drug therapies, antibiotics included,
may be ordered, distributed or marketed inappropriately (Holloway & Henry,
2014, p. 85). However, even with the inappropriate ordering, distribution and
marketing half of those patients neglect to take their medication as prescribed
or directed (World Health Organization, 2003). Inappropriate use of medication
come in various models from polypharmacy, excessive use of antibiotics,
negligence on prescribing per clinical regulations, improper self-medication
rather than following the directed dosing orders by providers. All these
factors have consequences due to their inappropriate use.

Inapplicable administration of antibiotics dissipates capital and
can be dangerous to both the patient and society. Unfavorable effects,
including prescription mistakes and adverse reactions, produce substantial
morbidity and mortality issues and data such as higher incidences of medication
reactions and hospitalization, although patient dissent with therapy may
decrease the probability of before-mentioned events in unusual events (Remesh,
Balan, & Gnanadurai, 2014). A methodical examination found that the average
portion of preventable drug-related admittances to the hospital is 3.7%, with
nearly a third of those showing improper ordering by the provider, another
third because of patient noncompliance and approximately a quarter because due
to failure to follow up on medication therapy (Howard, et al., 2007). The sad
fact is the inappropriate use of many drugs from opioids, antibiotics and
steroids have been shown by some studies to rank amidst the top ten reasons of
mortality in the United States and cost us up to $.6 million per hospital per
year (White, Arakelian, & Rho, 1999, p. 446). When it comes to antibiotic
use, much of it improper use adds to antimicrobial endurance, which is on the
rise not just in the United States but worldwide and producing notable health issue
and death (Livermore, 2003). There is a definite association between outpatient
antibiotic treatment and penicillin-resistant pneumococci that has been noted
through a study in Europe (Albrich, Monnet, & Harbarth, 2004). Calculations
of the yearly expenses due to antimicrobial resistance have been stated to be $
4000–5000 million in the USA and not only that but the use of hypodermic
needles is aided in cost, the only way to lower these costs and increasing
rates of morbidity and mortality rates is to determine the size and kinds of
inept drug and antibiotic use (Smolinski, Hamburg, & Lederberg, 2003).

initial action in fighting improper administration of drugs is to compute the
medication use in order to assess the system-wide range of the issues, identify
the varieties of difficulties and have a baseline amount to use for assessing
the influence of interventions implemented. If there are no metrics when
attempting to measure the use of drug therapies, the system cannot obtain the
legislative backing required to advance in future interventions to promote
better use antibiotic therapies and other drugs. Inappropriate drug and
antibiotic use in the advanced countries is a commonly documented issue in
studies such as a current study that determined that in the United States and
Europe alone that 12% of adults 65 years and older living at home and 40% of
adults 65 years and older residing in nursing homes are appointed inappropriate
medication therapies (Karandikar, Chaudhari, Dalal, Sharma, & Pandit, 2013).

the UK, it was determined that when every error in a primary care practice,
including the ordering and internal pharmacy distribution processes, were
looked, 4 to 21% of the patients obtained the optimal results from their
medications (Garfield, Barber, Walley, Willson, & Eliasson, 2009). Figures
show that antibiotic misuse isn’t just a United States issue but surveillance
of antibiotic use in Europe showed considerable deviations in antibiotic use
over many countries in outpatient antibiotic utilization in 2003 (Adriaenssens,
et al., 2011). The amount of prescribed daily doses per 1000 citizens was
nearly 30, but only around ten in some smaller countries and the classes of
antibiotic administered also varied (Adriaenssens, et al., 2011). However, it
is essential to show that regardless of if the country was big or small there
were, overprescribing of antibiotics by practitioners we confirmed (Roosmalen,
Braspenning, P A G M De Smet, & Grol, 2007). The extensive difference in
antibiotic ordering has been seen in hospitals all the way down to pediatric
practices, where prolonged antibiotic use for surgical prophylaxis was observed
in 40% of patients (Clavenna & Bonati, 2012). Outpatient antibiotic
administration in the southern European regions is comparable to that in the
United States, where the ubiquity of self-medication with antimicrobial
therapies can differ extensively across Europe. The ubiquity of self-medication
is a barrier to the is step because it is something not controlled by the
provider and patient education on timing specific medication use in order to
understand the amount and standard of improper use;

studies over the last 50 years were assessed, it showed that an average of
24.8% patients was noncompliant and gathered that the greatest compliance came
from patients with HIV, arthropathy, and cancer, and the lowest were patients
with lunglike diseases, diabetes, and sleep disturbances. This is why
guidelines for adherence by providers is essential a necessary (Clavenna &
Bonati, 2012). If clinics can provide a strong recommendation when it comes to
correct dosing, administration, and length of antibiotic treatments or other
misused medications this may improve the quality of care and medical issue for
the patient.  Various recommendations
have been generated in recent years for health facilities due to the rise of
multiple drug misuse leading to addictions to opioids and drug-resistant
microbes in antibiotics. However, the issue with these policies are their
impact has not been adequately scrutinized concerning cost-effectiveness and
benefits (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2017). The strong recommendation on
adhering to appropriately prescribed antibiotics and other drugs are the
patient is reminded of the positive results of treatment when orders are followed,
it provides space for patients to get educational materials, ask questions and
provide feedback but it also gives the facility an opportunity to see their
patient needs and adjust accordingly. However, it is important to note that
multifaceted interventions are not shown to be more efficient than just taking
one intervention.

other reviews state that a combination of strategies to improve the
implementation of guidelines is usually more effective than single strategies
(Grimshaw, et al., 2004).

            Though all of these steps seem to be
helpful to there are many future challenges to stop misuse of medications on
many fronts such as lack of investment, research, experts, and training. Many
of us know now that there is abundant evidence from all over the world on the
impact sustained the inappropriate use of antibiotics, opioids and other drugs
would have and even more data on how the issues should be addressed. However,
there is little known regarding the effectiveness of these numerous approaches.
Many are leery of investing in building an administration information system to
observe medicinal use, especially in regard to opioids, and formulate a public
policy that would encourage the suitable application of treatments if they do
not know they will be useful and yield positive outcomes. There needs to be
more work done in research to provide more data at a national level and in
private sectors of healthcare not just what local officials are doing and what
they can do to chance. Investors want to know if the prescribing and
distribution of antibiotics and other drugs in the private sectors are due to
incentives or other means if establishing these expensive quality assurance
tools will have therapeutic outcomes and eventually cost them less and if they
do tread the way to break new ground will there be a pulse for change on a
global scale where their experts on the matter will be needed. When you look at
the big pictures, there is a lot to give up front for implementation of
policies that may not yield fruitful results, because clearly if we had experts
of the matter on inappropriate use of antibiotics, opioids, and other
prescription medication we wouldn’t be in our current situation when opioid
addiction is an epidemic. Encouraging proper use of prescribed medication
demands a public health approach including a vast array of knowledge from doctors,
facility administrators, and patients. When there is a need in our county a
call is made to our little team of nurses because to them we are the
“experts” on the matter. Expertise regardless of title means having
an accurate perception of both public well-being and needs as well as
pharmaceutical issues that cover anything from antibiotic misuse to vaccine
issues. However, when you have a more significant public health, there can be
fragmented subspecialties, where one department knows handles disease
prevention, health promotion, HIV. We are considered the experts in our county
because we handle disease prevention, HIV, active and latent tuberculosis,
communicable disease, vaccines and a little health promotion in our small area.
This gives us the pulse of our community though and provides us with the
resource and knowledge we need to help people invest in us and the things we
need (Kitsap Public Health District, 2017).

            Inapt use of prescribed medications
is a worldwide issue that is running unchecked with little action that is
crucially required in order to oppose these issues. The vital future trial will
be to ‘regulating those who are inappropriately prescribing and distributing
antibiotics and other prescription medication in health systems. However, to
achieve this, legislatures, investors and the global associations will want to
devote time and funding to developing the required support and roles needed to
make this happen. In various countries that are more advanced and financially
well-off, they need to undertake a national analysis of their inappropriate use
in order to recognize influential intricacies and resolutions that are required
and bring to action a coordinated policy to carry out this plan. The lack of
response that has been going on regarding fighting the outcomes from antibiotics
and other misused prescription medications is a global disgrace with remarkably
grave public health results. We need to take the interventions above as an
opening to resist the improper use of all prescribed medications instead of
staying aloof and leave future generation to pay the price of dissipated
sources, patient impairment, and antimicrobial resistance.









Adriaenssens, N., Coenen,
S., Versporten, A., Muller, A., Vankerckhoven, V., & Goossens, H. (2011,
December 01). European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC):
quality appraisal of antibiotic use in Europe | Journal of Antimicrobial
Chemotherapy | Oxford Academic. Retrieved December 09, 2017, from

Albrich, W. C.,
Monnet, D. L., & Harbarth, S. (2004, March). Antibiotic Selection Pressure
and Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.
Retrieved December 08, 2017, from

Clavenna, A.,
& Bonati, M. (2012, November 10). Drug prescriptions to outpatient
children: a review of the literature. Retrieved December 09, 2017, from

Garfield, S.,
Barber, N., Walley, P., Willson, A., & Eliasson, L. (2009, September 21).
Quality of medication use in primary care – mapping the problem, working to a
solution: a systematic review of the literature. Retrieved December 09, 2017,
from https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-7-50

Grimshaw, J. M.,
Thomas, R. E., MacLennan, G., Fraser, C., Ramsay, C. R., Vale, L., . . .
Donaldson, C. (2004, February). Effectiveness and efficiency of guideline
dissemination and implementation strategies. Retrieved December 09, 2017, from

Holloway, K. A.,
& Henry, D. (2014). WHO Essential Medicines Policies and Use in Developing
and Transitional Countries: An Analysis of Reported Policy Implementation and
Medicines Use Surveys. PLoS Medicine, 11(9), 1-169.

Howard, R. L.,
Avery, A. J., Slavenburg, S., Royal, S., Pipe, G., Lucassen, P., &
Pirmohamed, M. (2007). Which drugs cause preventable admissions to hospital? A
systematic review. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(2),
136-147. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02698.x

Karandikar, Y.,
Chaudhari, S., Dalal, N., Sharma, M., & Pandit, V. (2013). Inappropriate
prescribing in the elderly: A comparison of two validated screening tools. Journal
of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, 4(4), 109-114.

Kitsap Public
Health District. (2017). HARBORVIEW MADISON CLINIC. Retrieved December 09,
2017, from https://www.kitsappublichealth.org/CommunityHealth/hs_madison.php

Livermore, D. M.
(2003, January 15). Bacterial Resistance: Origins, Epidemiology, and Impact |
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic. Retrieved December 08, 2017,
from https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/36/Supplement_1/S11/301524

National Institute
on Drug Abuse. (2017, May). How Much Does Opioid Treatment Cost? Retrieved
December 09, 2017, from

Remesh, A., Balan,
A., & Gnanadurai, A. (2014). A cross-sectional study of surveillance of
adverse drug reactions in inpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital. Journal
of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 25(1), 303-308.

Roosmalen, M. S.,
Braspenning, J. C., P A G M De Smet, & Grol, R. P. (2007, April).
Antibiotic prescribing in primary care: first choice and restrictive
prescribing are two different traits. Retrieved December 09, 2017, from

Smolinski, M. S.,
Hamburg, M. A., & Lederberg, J. (2003). Microbial threats to health
emergence, detection, and response. Washington, D.C.: National Academies

White, T. J.,
Arakelian, A., & Rho, J. P. (1999). Counting the Costs of Drug-Related
Adverse Events. PharmacoEconomics, 15(5), 445-458.

World Health
Organization. (2003). Adherence to Long-Term Therapies: Evidence for Action. Retrieved
December 08, 2017, from http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/prev_care/lttherapies/en/

World Health
Organization . (2002, September). Promoting Rational Use of Medicines: Core
Components – WHO Policy Perspectives on Medicines. Retrieved December 08, 2017,
from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Jh3011e/





I'm Eileen!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out