Kerbala total number of cases which considered being

Kerbala is an average size densely populated city, river-sided at
Al-Hysannia.  Al-Razazah Lake located at west border of
the province often called buhayrat Al-Razazah which considered to be the second
largest lake in Iraq and listed as a wetland of international importance.(5)Table1, Figure 3 and 4
consolidate that tendency of infection is much greater in highly populated
residential areas of the province at central Kerbala as represents more than
half of the total cases. Increase in population density can strain existing
sanitation systems, thus putting people at increased risk of contracting
cholera. (6, 7)This high rates of cholera
incidence at the central part of the region, and low rates at the peripheries; Such
high urbanization rate strain existing resources meant for providing better
sanitation systems and potable water. Inadequate sanitation systems coupled
with intermittent supply of pipe borne water in urban communities puts the
population at risk of cholera. Surface water pollution is particularly found to
be worse where rivers pass through urban and overcrowded cities, and the
commonest contamination is from human excreta and sewage (8)21 cases were reported at
suburbs district of Al-Hur, 3 kilometres away from Kerbala’s centre. This
remarkably represents 31% from the total number of cases which considered being
significantly high comparing to the overall community population of
approximately 7500. (9)The district services are basic
and over burdened, and informal housing on agricultural lands is having a
negative ecological impact on the area causing health deterioration to the
community.  The number of confirmed Cholera decreases significantly to
just 9 cases at Al- Jazeerha sub-district.   Due to the cosmopolitan
(multi-ethnic) nature of Kerbala as well as the vast number of tourists coming
to the city every year make the city at increased risk for cholera. The traditional laws which were used to protect water
bodies form waste and fecal pollution are no longer adhered . Therefore,
defecating and dumping of waste in and at the banks of surface water bodies has
become a common practice in most urban communities. However, urban inhabitants
resort to such polluted water bodies for various household activities like cooking
and washing during periods of water shortage Kerbala existing water and sewage infrastructure, including
treatment plants and pipe networks, is largely in disrepair. Insufficient
operating budgets are exacerbated by poorly trained personnel, unreliable
electricity, and a tendency to look for quick fixes rather than long-term
solutions to problems.(10)   




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