List and describe those at risk forCV problems and a brief explanation as to why they are at risk, includinginformation on modifiable and non modifiable risk factors Modifiablerisk factors for cardiovascular disease include increased serum lipid,hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, stress, and diabetesmellitus. Cigarette smoking is a major factor that can damage the heart becauseit contains tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide which increases blood pressureand the tendency for blood to clot. A sedentary lifestyle also plays a majorrole in cardiovascular health because it increases the risk of diabetes mellitus,high blood pressure, obesity, and increases serum lipid levels. Stress is alsoa major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This is because stress canincrease hormones like adrenaline and cortisol which can lead to chronicdiseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, people tend toexpose themselves to unhealthy coping strategies such as eating comfort foodslike ice cream, cookies, greasy foods, and drinking alcohol or even smokingcigarettes. Lastly, diabetes mellitus contributes to cardiovascular disease aswell. One of the most serious health problems related to diabetes mellitus isatherosclerosis, which is the building up of plaque in arteries – if a blockageforms it can lead to cardiovascular disease.
(Iggy Ch.33 page 632-633)Non-modifiablerisk factors are something that we cannot make any changes to, such as age,gender, family history, and race. As a person ages, everything in the body developsproblems. This includes hardening of blood vessels as well as build up ofplaque, decrease in muscle mass, decrease in physical activity. All of thesecan contribute to cardiovascular disease. Also, men have a higher risk thanwomen, and people of African American ethnicity are at higher risk ofdeveloping cardiovascular disease. Lastly, family history also has manycontributory factors.
Heart disease tend to run in families, so it is importantto assess the family history when taking care of a patient with cardiovascular disease.(Iggy Ch.33 page 632-633) Lastsemester, I had an elderly patient with congestive heart failure with historyof type two diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and BMI of 35. Considering hisage and medical history, he was at high risks of developing cardiovascular disease. If I were to do patienteducation with him, I would teach him how to take care of his cardiovascular healthincluding daily physical exercise to maintain healthy weight, and balanced/healthymeals as well as how to manage his diabetes.