List as age, gender, family history, and race.

List and describe those at risk for
CV problems and a brief explanation as to why they are at risk, including
information on modifiable and non modifiable risk factors

 

Modifiable
risk factors for cardiovascular disease include increased serum lipid,
hypertension, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, stress, and diabetes
mellitus. Cigarette smoking is a major factor that can damage the heart because
it contains tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide which increases blood pressure
and the tendency for blood to clot. A sedentary lifestyle also plays a major
role in cardiovascular health because it increases the risk of diabetes mellitus,
high blood pressure, obesity, and increases serum lipid levels. Stress is also
a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This is because stress can
increase hormones like adrenaline and cortisol which can lead to chronic
diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, people tend to
expose themselves to unhealthy coping strategies such as eating comfort foods
like ice cream, cookies, greasy foods, and drinking alcohol or even smoking
cigarettes. Lastly, diabetes mellitus contributes to cardiovascular disease as
well. One of the most serious health problems related to diabetes mellitus is
atherosclerosis, which is the building up of plaque in arteries – if a blockage
forms it can lead to cardiovascular disease. (Iggy Ch.33 page 632-633)

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Non-modifiable
risk factors are something that we cannot make any changes to, such as age,
gender, family history, and race. As a person ages, everything in the body develops
problems. This includes hardening of blood vessels as well as build up of
plaque, decrease in muscle mass, decrease in physical activity. All of these
can contribute to cardiovascular disease. Also, men have a higher risk than
women, and people of African American ethnicity are at higher risk of
developing cardiovascular disease. Lastly, family history also has many
contributory factors. Heart disease tend to run in families, so it is important
to assess the family history when taking care of a patient with cardiovascular disease.
(Iggy Ch.33 page 632-633)

            Last
semester, I had an elderly patient with congestive heart failure with history
of type two diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and BMI of 35. Considering his
age and medical history, he was at high risks of developing cardiovascular disease. If I were to do patient
education with him, I would teach him how to take care of his cardiovascular health
including daily physical exercise to maintain healthy weight, and balanced/healthy
meals as well as how to manage his diabetes.

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