The Mariner program was a mission program which was started by American
space agency NASA in association with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This
program dispatched scale of robotic interplanetary probes, from the year 1962
to 1973 it is designed to examine Mars, Venus and Mercury. This incorporate
first of planetary flyby, first
planetary orbiter and the first gravity assist artifice. Mariner 1 was the first
space craft dispatched by the American mariner program.
Mariner 1 was a one of the 1st spacecraft in American
Mariner program. It was dispatched on July twenty two, 1962 from Cape
Canaveral, on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data regarding
Venus during flyby. It was one of the first Mariner mission by America.
NASA engineers had been functioning on a new design
distinctively for going to Mars and Venus, but it wasn’t ready in time for the
1962 attempt, so Ranger spacecraft were used for Mariner 1 and its
backup, Mariner 2.
The Mariner 1 was a space craft which was similar to Mariner
2, dispatched on 27 August 1962. It contains hexagonal base consists of 1.04
meters across and 0.36 meters thickness, contained 6 magnesium chassis housing
the electronic for the science research and development, alternating
information, timing and attitude control and power control, data encoding,
computing, battery and battery charger
as well as attitude control gas bottles the rocket engine. On capital of base
was a beanstalk pyramid shaped mast on which a scientific experiments were
mounted it brought the entire height of the space craft to 3.66 meters. Affixed
to either side of base were rectangular solar panel wings with a sum span of
5.05 meters and width of .76 meters. Affixed by an arm to one side of base and
approaching below spacecraft was a giant directional dish antenna.
Mariner 1 power system made of 2 solar cell wings, one is of
183 cm by 76 cm and other is of 152cm by 76 cm which made the craft directly to
recharged a 1000 watt hour closed silver – zinc cell battery, which was to be
worn before panels were deployed when these panels were not lit up by Sun and
when they capacitate were heavy.
A power switching and
booster governance device regulates the power outflow. Communications contained
a 3 Watt transmitter proficient of everlasting telemetry operation, the huge
gain directional dish antenna, a cylindrical omnidirectional antenna at top
most instrument mast, and 2 instruction antennas and one on the extreme of
either solar panel which observed instructions for midcourse maneuvers and
Propulsion for midcourse maneuvers was supplied by anhydrous
hydrazine 225 N retro rocket. The hydrazine was set alight using nitrogen
tetroxide and aluminum oxide propellants and thrust direction was under the
control of four jet vanes fitted below the thrust enclose. Attitude control
with one degree pointing fault was handled by system of nitrogen gas jets.
The Sun and Earth was used as a advertences for attitude
stabilization. Overall timing control was operated by a digital central
computer system and Sequencer. Thermal controller was achieved through use of
apathetic reflecting and penetrating surfaces, thermal shields and movable
Total scientific, development, launch and platform costs for
Mariner series of Space craft was approximately $554 million.
Mariner 1 Lunch
CAUSES FOR FAILURES
Mariner 1 Launch got aborted because of following failures
fault of GE Mod -B guidance system speed beacon and
error from guidance program. The speed beacon fault occurred at T+93 seconds,
booster phase was still in advancement and did not made an immediate effect.
The guidance antenna on Atlas rendered poorly,
so the signal received by rocket became feeble and clattery, the rocket lost
its lock on ground instruction signal which supplied steering commands.
Agena vehicles used two different instruction system modification for Cape
Canaveral and Vandenberg launches, both were proved to be anxiety and suited
for several in-flight malfunctions this resulted in redesigning of instruction
system by General Electric in 1963.
operation of Atlas airborne resulted in loss of rate of signals from vehicle
for a mentioned period. The airborne beacon used for getting the rate data was
in operative for 4 periods in the range from 1.5 to 61 seconds of time.
Omission of hyphen in computer coded
instructions in data editing program made transmission of incorrect instruction
signals to the spacecraft. This caused the computer to incorrectly accept the
sweep frequency of the ground receiver as it sought the vehicle beacon signal
and combined this data with the tracking data sent to remaining guidance for
This caused the computer to swing
automatically into a series of unnecessary course corrections with erroneous
steering instructions which ended up with threw the spacecraft.
ANALYSIS OF FAILURES
Overbar Transcription Error
The disappointment had happened
while propelling the satellite because of an image was being translated by turn
in the determination for direction program. This was the real mistake of
scientific image in the program detail, because of missing overbar brought
about slamming of space make.
Only 293 seconds after dispatch, a
range security officer had issued a damaging prematurely end when it get veered
off after an unscheduled yaw lift of move. The destruct summon was sent around
6 sec of before the partition, after that it couldn’t have been pulverized.
This defective use of direction
orders made controlling incomprehensible and there were coordinating entire
space create towards crash, in the North Atlantic transportation paths or in an
occupied territory. The post flight additionally came about that a missing
hyphen in the coded programming directions while information altering program
permitted transmission of the inaccurate direction signals. At the point when
airborne reference point was not working that time the programming code blunder
made PC acknowledge the breadth recurrence of the ground recipient as it looked
for the signal flag and furthermore consolidated that with a following
information which is sent to the direction calculation. This brought about
pointless course rectifications with an off base guiding charges.
The cost of Mariner 1 to 10 was
roughly $550 million which is because of committing error in missing hyphen in
programming code, it was a tremendous disappointment of NASA in propelling
Mariner 1 space make.
PREVENTION METHODS OF FAILURES
Once the Mariner 1 space
craft dispatched from the ground before it was get destroyed a safety command
was given by Range Safety officer 293 seconds after launch at 09:26:16 UT. The
booster had performed satisfactorily until an unscheduled yaw-lift maneuver was
detected by the range safety officer. Faulty application of the guidance
commands made steering impossible and were directing the spacecraft towards a
crash, possibly in the North Atlantic shipping lanes or in an inhabited area.
The destruct command was sent 6 seconds before separation, after which the
launch vehicle could not have been destroyed. The radio transponder continued
to transmit signals for 64 seconds after the destruct command had been sent.
SOLUTIONS USED FOR FAILURES
Due to fault of Mariner 1 On December 14, 1962, Scientists
decided to launch Mariner 2 which became the first Robotic space probe to
regulate a fortunate planetary encounter. It levelheaded the data on Venus
atmosphere, magnetic field, charged particle environment, and mass also
measurements of interplanetary medium. Mariner 2 was on 27 August the launch
was successful and spacecraft entered a solar orbit on its way to the Venus. It
took 110 days journey with valuable information about the interplanetary
environment which includes existence of the solar wind and a stream of charged
particles emanating from the Sun. By the time when Mariner 2 reaches Venus, one
of its solar array got failed and but it remained healthy enough to complete
the scientific mission.
Mariner 2 Launch by NASA
December 14, It passed within 21,564 miles of Venus and
remained on in solar orbit, which sends back the data what it had collected
during mission. It measured the temperature at Venus at 300?F to 400?F, with
Sagan’s greenhouse effect prediction and mainly its atmospheric pressure is 20
times greater than on the Earth. Unlike the Earth, Mariner 2 had found Venus
has no magnetic field and no protective trap radiation belts, resulted that
planed is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. Its last transmission was on
January 3rd 1963 having completed first robotic exploration of other
Mariner 1 is a first spacecraft by American Mariner program,
on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data about Venus during flyby.
Due to small mistake which is hyphen in the programming resulted in destruction
of entire mission of Mariner 1, so finally we concluded from this error is that
as a software engineer or a developer should not just double check the code. They
should triple check before starting any mission which mainly runs on the
instructions of program.
Q & A
How does Software Engineers can take care of Programming
As a software engineers or a programmers are responsible for
entire mission to run or works, so they should not just double check the
software code instead they should triple check before a start of any mission to
work error free.