Mariner1ABSTRACTThe Mariner program was a mission program which was started by Americanspace agency NASA in association with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Thisprogram dispatched scale of robotic interplanetary probes, from the year 1962to 1973 it is designed to examine Mars, Venus and Mercury.
This incorporatefirst of planetary flyby, firstplanetary orbiter and the first gravity assist artifice. Mariner 1 was the firstspace craft dispatched by the American mariner program. INTRODUCTIONMariner 1 was a one of the 1st spacecraft in AmericanMariner program. It was dispatched on July twenty two, 1962 from CapeCanaveral, on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data regardingVenus during flyby.
It was one of the first Mariner mission by America. NASA engineers had been functioning on a new designdistinctively for going to Mars and Venus, but it wasn’t ready in time for the1962 attempt, so Ranger spacecraft were used for Mariner 1 and itsbackup, Mariner 2. DESCRIPTIONThe Mariner 1 was a space craft which was similar to Mariner2, dispatched on 27 August 1962. It contains hexagonal base consists of 1.04meters across and 0.36 meters thickness, contained 6 magnesium chassis housingthe electronic for the science research and development, alternatinginformation, timing and attitude control and power control, data encoding,computing, battery and battery chargeras well as attitude control gas bottles the rocket engine. On capital of basewas a beanstalk pyramid shaped mast on which a scientific experiments weremounted it brought the entire height of the space craft to 3.
66 meters. Affixedto either side of base were rectangular solar panel wings with a sum span of5.05 meters and width of .76 meters. Affixed by an arm to one side of base andapproaching below spacecraft was a giant directional dish antenna.Mariner 1 power system made of 2 solar cell wings, one is of183 cm by 76 cm and other is of 152cm by 76 cm which made the craft directly torecharged a 1000 watt hour closed silver – zinc cell battery, which was to beworn before panels were deployed when these panels were not lit up by Sun andwhen they capacitate were heavy. A power switching andbooster governance device regulates the power outflow. Communications containeda 3 Watt transmitter proficient of everlasting telemetry operation, the hugegain directional dish antenna, a cylindrical omnidirectional antenna at topmost instrument mast, and 2 instruction antennas and one on the extreme ofeither solar panel which observed instructions for midcourse maneuvers andother purpose.
Propulsion for midcourse maneuvers was supplied by anhydroushydrazine 225 N retro rocket. The hydrazine was set alight using nitrogentetroxide and aluminum oxide propellants and thrust direction was under thecontrol of four jet vanes fitted below the thrust enclose. Attitude controlwith one degree pointing fault was handled by system of nitrogen gas jets.
The Sun and Earth was used as a advertences for attitudestabilization. Overall timing control was operated by a digital centralcomputer system and Sequencer. Thermal controller was achieved through use ofapathetic reflecting and penetrating surfaces, thermal shields and movablelouvers.
Total scientific, development, launch and platform costs forMariner series of Space craft was approximately $554 million. Mariner 1 Lunchby NASA CAUSES FOR FAILURESMariner 1 Launch got aborted because of following failures · Afault of GE Mod -B guidance system speed beacon anderror from guidance program. The speed beacon fault occurred at T+93 seconds,booster phase was still in advancement and did not made an immediate effect.· The guidance antenna on Atlas rendered poorly,so the signal received by rocket became feeble and clattery, the rocket lostits lock on ground instruction signal which supplied steering commands.
· AtlasAgena vehicles used two different instruction system modification for CapeCanaveral and Vandenberg launches, both were proved to be anxiety and suitedfor several in-flight malfunctions this resulted in redesigning of instructionsystem by General Electric in 1963.· Improperoperation of Atlas airborne resulted in loss of rate of signals from vehiclefor a mentioned period. The airborne beacon used for getting the rate data wasin operative for 4 periods in the range from 1.5 to 61 seconds of time.
· Omission of hyphen in computer codedinstructions in data editing program made transmission of incorrect instructionsignals to the spacecraft. This caused the computer to incorrectly accept thesweep frequency of the ground receiver as it sought the vehicle beacon signaland combined this data with the tracking data sent to remaining guidance forcomputation.· This caused the computer to swingautomatically into a series of unnecessary course corrections with erroneoussteering instructions which ended up with threw the spacecraft. ANALYSIS OF FAILURESOverbar Transcription ErrorThe disappointment had happenedwhile propelling the satellite because of an image was being translated by turnin the determination for direction program. This was the real mistake ofscientific image in the program detail, because of missing overbar broughtabout slamming of space make. R? Only 293 seconds after dispatch, arange security officer had issued a damaging prematurely end when it get veeredoff after an unscheduled yaw lift of move.
The destruct summon was sent around6 sec of before the partition, after that it couldn’t have been pulverized. This defective use of directionorders made controlling incomprehensible and there were coordinating entirespace create towards crash, in the North Atlantic transportation paths or in anoccupied territory. The post flight additionally came about that a missinghyphen in the coded programming directions while information altering programpermitted transmission of the inaccurate direction signals. At the point whenairborne reference point was not working that time the programming code blundermade PC acknowledge the breadth recurrence of the ground recipient as it lookedfor the signal flag and furthermore consolidated that with a followinginformation which is sent to the direction calculation. This brought aboutpointless course rectifications with an off base guiding charges. The cost of Mariner 1 to 10 wasroughly $550 million which is because of committing error in missing hyphen inprogramming code, it was a tremendous disappointment of NASA in propellingMariner 1 space make. PREVENTION METHODS OF FAILURESOnce the Mariner 1 spacecraft dispatched from the ground before it was get destroyed a safety commandwas given by Range Safety officer 293 seconds after launch at 09:26:16 UT. Thebooster had performed satisfactorily until an unscheduled yaw-lift maneuver wasdetected by the range safety officer.
Faulty application of the guidancecommands made steering impossible and were directing the spacecraft towards acrash, possibly in the North Atlantic shipping lanes or in an inhabited area.The destruct command was sent 6 seconds before separation, after which thelaunch vehicle could not have been destroyed. The radio transponder continuedto transmit signals for 64 seconds after the destruct command had been sent. SOLUTIONS USED FOR FAILURESDue to fault of Mariner 1 On December 14, 1962, Scientistsdecided to launch Mariner 2 which became the first Robotic space probe toregulate a fortunate planetary encounter. It levelheaded the data on Venusatmosphere, magnetic field, charged particle environment, and mass alsomeasurements of interplanetary medium.
Mariner 2 was on 27 August the launchwas successful and spacecraft entered a solar orbit on its way to the Venus. Ittook 110 days journey with valuable information about the interplanetaryenvironment which includes existence of the solar wind and a stream of chargedparticles emanating from the Sun. By the time when Mariner 2 reaches Venus, oneof its solar array got failed and but it remained healthy enough to completethe scientific mission.
Mariner 2 Launch by NASADecember 14, It passed within 21,564 miles of Venus andremained on in solar orbit, which sends back the data what it had collectedduring mission. It measured the temperature at Venus at 300?F to 400?F, withSagan’s greenhouse effect prediction and mainly its atmospheric pressure is 20times greater than on the Earth. Unlike the Earth, Mariner 2 had found Venushas no magnetic field and no protective trap radiation belts, resulted thatplaned is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. Its last transmission was onJanuary 3rd 1963 having completed first robotic exploration of otherplanets. CONCLUSIONMariner 1 is a first spacecraft by American Mariner program,on a mission in collecting variety of scientific data about Venus during flyby.
Due to small mistake which is hyphen in the programming resulted in destructionof entire mission of Mariner 1, so finally we concluded from this error is thatas a software engineer or a developer should not just double check the code. Theyshould triple check before starting any mission which mainly runs on theinstructions of program.Q & AHow does Software Engineers can take care of Programmingmistakes?As a software engineers or a programmers are responsible forentire mission to run or works, so they should not just double check thesoftware code instead they should triple check before a start of any mission towork error free.