Material pollution is measured via an average of

Material Efficiency. The ability of a material to promote
efficient use is measured through its density, which is
reflected in the volumetric functional unit used for all
assessments. Less dense materials are able to serve many
purposes with less mass, thus a lower density plastic is more
Avoid Hazardous Materials and Pollution. The avoidance
of hazardous materials and pollution is measured via an
average of the normalized life-cycle impacts in TRACI
categories of respiratory effects, human health cancer, human
health noncancer, and ecotoxicity (12).Maximize Energy Efficiency. Overall energy efficiency was
measured by the cumulative life-cycle energy use found by
the cumulative energy demand life cycle impact assessment
(LCIA) method. This energy demand includes all energy use
in the production of the product, as well as any embedded
energy in input materials such as oil, natural gas, or biomass,
calculated using the higher heating value (HHV) as explained
by Huijbregts et al. (25).

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