MTHOKOZISI that do not necessarily impact on one

MTHOKOZISI DWAYISA, 64061140, HES4809, 661392, [email protected]
and 0813355642
Question 1
A cumulative environmental impact is defined by Castilla-Gomez and Herrera-Herbert
(2014) as a combination of impacts, past – present – and foreseeable future impacts.
Environmental – biophysical, social, economic. The impacts interact with one another to
make the overall impact greater or worse. Connelly (2011), states that cumulative impacts
can result from individually minor, but collectively significant, actions taking place over a
period of time. An example of a cumulative environmental impact is the reduction of water
flow in a watershed due to multiple withdrawals.
Multiple environmental impacts are defined as a number of impacts that do not necessarily
impact on one another and do not necessarily result from one another i.e. many but
independent (Castilla-Gomez and Herrera-Herbert, 2014). An example of multiple
environmental impacts is the water scarcity and death of aquatic organisms.
Castilla-Gomez, J and Herrera-Herbert, J., 2014. Comparative criteria for a dynamic
approach to environmental impact assessment and its influence in mine planning. In:
Drebenstedt, C., Singhal, R. (Eds.). Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, Springer
International Publishing, pp. 685–696. Doi: 10.1007/978-3- 319-02678-7_66.
Connelly, R., 2011. Canadian and international EIA frameworks as they apply to cumulative
effects. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 31 (September), 453–456., ISSN: 0195-9255.
Question 2
Humans are dominating the earth and with that have come the unprecedented loss of
biodiversity and many environmental influences (Dick et al, 2016). Despite the dedication of
most governments to reduce ecosystem degradation, population decline and species loss,
problems inclusive of climate change, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and
alien invasive species nevertheless hold to undermine the purpose of environmental control,

that’s to maximise benefits to the environment and to the humans continuously (Dick et al,
2016). A multi-disciplinary approach is when many different or diverse academic disciplines
are drawn in to deal with environmental impacts. In such cases, these different professionals
will work together as a team, to draw up a plan/solution to an environmental problem.
A multidisciplinary approach calls for environmental problems to be framed simultaneously
in each of the natural and socioeconomic dimensions (Daily and Ehrlich, 1999). A
multidisciplinary approach to solving environmental issues is essential due to the fact socio-
ecological structures are complicated; very few of the environmental issues lie entirely within
one discipline (Daily and Ehrlich, 1999). This approach is vital due to the fact multiple views
are better than one (Dick et al, 2016). A multidisciplinary approach to solving environmental
issues is essential because the outcomes of studies have to have an impact on practice, the
heterogeneity of scale necessitates it and conservation involves compromise (Dick et al,
Daily, G.C and Ehrlich, P.R., 1999. Managing Earth’s ecosystems: an interdisciplinary
challenge. Ecosystems, 2(4): 277–280. doi:10.1007/s100219900075.
Dick, M., Rous, A.M., Nguyen, V.M., and Cooke, S.J., 2016. Necessary but challenging:
Multiple disciplinary approaches to solving conservation problems. FACETS 1: 67–82.
doi:10.1139/ facets-2016-0003
Question 3
In the wake of the Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa from January 2017 to March 2018,
with 183 fatalities and 42% of which were neonates, it is no surprise that in December 2017
Listeriosis made the communicable disease list (WHO, 2018). There has been a vast
difference in how Gauteng, Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal were affected by Listeriosis,
therefore the food safety awareness method of approach would be specific to each province
because they differ in terms of geography and diversity.

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Gauteng is a small province that is highly urbanized with a higher income bracket. Therefore
I would communicate the 5 keys to safer food to the people and inform them of the causes of
Listeriosis. The 5 keys to safer food are keeping clean; separate raw and cooked; cook
thoroughly; keep food at safe temperatures and use safe water and raw materials (WHO,
2018). The disease is caused by the bacterium listeria and it is found in soil, water and can
contaminate foods like deli meats, sausages, soft cheeses, cold smoked fishery, unpasteurised
milk, etc. Methods of communication will be through campaigns, social media, pamphlets,
TV and Radio.
Western Cape:
Western Cape is also a highly urbanized province with a high-income bracket. Therefore I
would communicate the 5 keys to safer food to the people and inform them of the causes of
Listeriosis. The 5 keys to safer food are keeping clean; separate raw and cooked; cook
thoroughly; keep food at safe temperatures and use safe water and raw materials (WHO,
2018). The disease is caused by the bacterium listeria and it is found in soil, water and can
contaminate foods like deli meats, sausages, soft cheeses, cold smoked fishery, unpasteurised
milk, etc. I would also make refrigerated food distributors and farmers aware of the
guidelines of the HACCP food management system. Methods of communication will be
through campaigns, social media, pamphlets, TV and Radio.
KZN is not so urbanized the province is mostly dominated by rural areas with Durban being
the only urbanized area. The province has a low to middle income bracket. KZN is
dominated by Zulu speaking people. To communicate and inform the people of KZN in rural
areas about Listeriosis would be to run food safety awareness campaigns in local clinics
where people have medical practitioners for further information. Use Zulu radio stations and
newspapers to inform people about the disease. Other ways to communicate with people of
KZN will be through campaigns, social media, pamphlets, TV and Radio.

Question 4
Categories EIA IEM
Definition Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is
the process of assessing the likely
environmental impacts of a proposal and
identifying options to minimise
environmental damage (WBCSD, 2005).
IEM is a philosophical framework for assessing
and managing each phase of any action at any
level (be it in plan, policy, programme or
project) that that affects or interacts with the
environment which is universally applicable in
society (DEAT, 2004).
Purpose To mitigate adverse impacts, strengthen
positive impacts, plan properly, and make
better decisions. Prevent future
environmental disasters.
To encourage the integration of environmental
management principles into decisions with the
potential to significantly affect the environment
(DEAT, 2004).
Tools The tools used in EIA are (DEAT, 2004):
Checklists, Audits, Site visits, Matrices,
Specialist reports, reports and engaging
The tools used in IEM are (DEAT, 2004):
Screening, Environmental Impact Assessment,
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental
Auditing, Environmental Accounting,
Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA), Risk
Assessment, Strategic Environmental
Assessment, Environmental Management
Systems (EMS) and Environmental
Management Plan (EMP).
Advantages The advantages of EIA outlined by DEAT
? Informed decision-making;
? Better projects;
? Lessons environmental impacts; and
? Increased accountability and
The advantages of IEM outlined by DEAT
? Improved communication between all
interested and affected parties involved.
? Integration of knowledge from multiple
specialist disciplines allowing better
informed decisions,
? Improved environmental quality and
? Increased efficiency in implementation

because potential problems are dealt with
in planning.
Limitations The limitations of EIA outlined by (Weaver
et al, 1999):
? Not possible to completely predict
? EIA’s can be politically manipulated;
? Reliant on the EAP’s expertise and
experience; and
? Environments are not the same.
The limitations of IEM outlined by (DEAT,
? The need to improve the quality of
outputs, the focus being on rigorous
analysis, responsive consultation and
responsible administration (DEAT,
? The need to improve the level of
integration between the various IEM
tools for application throughout the full
development life cycle (DEAT, 2004).
? Effective Integrated Environmental
Management requires a strong co-
operative government (DEAT, 2004).
? The need for effective environmental
governance (DEAT, 2004).

DEAT. 2004. Overview of Integrated Environmental Management. Integrated Environmental
Management, Information Series 0. Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism (DEAT). 20 p.0-9584728-1-5 ISBN.
Weaver, A., Rossouw, N. ; Grobler, D., 1999. Scoping and “Issues Focused”
Environmental Impact Assessment in South Africa. African Journal of Environmental
Assessment and Management, Vol. 1 (1): 1-11
World Business Council for Sustainable Development, (2005): Environmental and social
impact assessment (ESIA) guidelines. 54pp

Question 5
80% of the world’s rhinos are found in South Africa and South Africa is viewed as the
primary of custodians of Africa’s rhinos. There has been a decline in South Africa’s rhino
population in the last decade because of the rhino poaching crisis (Gonçalves, 2017). Below
is a graph showing the rhino poaching in South Africa over a decade:

Source: (Carnie, 2018)
Only 13 rhinos were poached in South Africa in 2007. In 2008 the tally rose steeply to 83
rhinos poached to 333 deaths in 2010 and then to a record death toll of 1215 in 2014 and it
has remained over the 1000 death toll to date (Carnie, 2018). The 1,028 rhinos killed in South
Africa alone during 2017 works out to be nearly three rhinos killed every day. It is evident in
the above graph that South Africa is not managing rhinos sustainably.
The Department of Environmental Affairs in South Africa is considering potential solutions
to address the rhino poaching such as dehorning the rhinos and legalising a trade in the rhino
horn within South Africa (Carnie, 2018). With all these solutions being considered the killing
of rhinos is still not stopping which is why I will argue that South Africa is not managing
rhinos sustainably.

Carnie, T., 2018. Rhino poaching: Latest figures show a decade of bloodshed in South Africa.
The Independent, 1 February 2018
Gonçalves, D., 2017. Society and the rhino: A whole-of-society approach to wildlife crime in
South Africa. South African Crime Quarterly, 60, pp.9-18.

Question 6
Environmental activist:
An environmental activist is a person who advocates and works for the cause of shielding the
natural environment from numerous forms of destruction and degradation (Elliot, 2018). An
activist can be strongly passionate about conservation of the environment, its improvement,
preservation, pollutants manipulate and plant and animal diversity (Elliot, 2018). According
to Funke et al (2012), an environmental activist works for numerous environmental problems
and campaigns along with climate change, sustainable development, sustainable agriculture,
waste control and renewable assets of energy amongst others. Environmental activists these
days use the internet effectively to create cognizance about environment associated issues and
release numerous environmental campaigns (Funke et al 2012).
Here are some examples of different environmental activists from South Africa and other
SADC countries:
? Miss Mariette Liefferink is the CEO of the Federation for a Sustainable Environment
(FSE), she is an acid mine drainage activist who strongly opposes malpractice by big
mining organizations and the South African government (Funke et al 2012).
? Ground Work, the Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance, the South Durban
Community Environmental Alliance, the Highveld Environmental Justice Network,
the Centre for Applied Legal Studies, the Centre for Environmental Rights and Earth
justice are all the environmental activists that called for an improved coal mining
regulation because poor regulated coal mining and coal-fired energy generation in
South Africa are held accountable for air and water pollution, destruction of arable
land, biodiversity loss and violating the human rights of many communities (Funke et
al 2012).

? The Green campaigners are environmental activists from Zambia that opposed copper
mining activities within the Lower Zambezi National Park by a mining firm from
Australia (Sakala, 2014).
Environmental lawyer:
An environmental lawyer is a kind of attorney who deals with instances which are associated
with the protection of nature and the natural world, in addition to the extraordinary problems
that arise from pollutants and out of control business growth (Sive, 1970). In order to become
an environmental lawyer, one has to study a Law diploma (LLB) with Environmental Law as
an elective and an additional module in Botany, Zoology or Biology which is a benefit within
the environmental lawyer career (Bodansky, 2006). An environmental lawyer works to
represent clients in legal problems in clean technology, water regulation, climate change
regulation and the management of land challenge to native title and other public land. Other
areas of focus consist of environmental rights, international environmental regulation, law of
the ocean and international resources law (Sive, 1970). An environmental lawyer can work
for environmental advocacy organizations, non-profit organizations or the government and
also can go into private practice, doing consulting work or representing various clients in
court (Bodansky, 2006).

Here are a few examples of different environmental lawyers from South Africa and other
SADC countries:
? Cullinan and Associates – Environmental and green business attorneys
? The Centre for Environmental Rights is a non-profit organisation and law clinic based
in Cape Town, South Africa. They are activist lawyers who help communities and
civil society organisations in South Africa realise our Constitutional right to a healthy
environment by advocating and litigating for environmental justice.
? Koep and partners form Zambia have environmental lawyers that regularly advise
clients on environmental regulatory issues, especially in the mining and energy

Bodansky, D., 2006. Does one need to be an international lawyer to be an international
environmental lawyer?. In Proceedings of the ASIL Annual Meeting (Vol. 100, pp. 303-307).
Cambridge University Press.
Elliott, L., 2018. Environmentalism. ONLINE Available at: Accessed 1 August 2018.
Sive, D., 1970. Some thoughts of an environmental lawyer in the wilderness of administrative
law. Columbia Law Review, 70(4), pp.612-651.
Funke, N.S., Nienaber, S. and Gioia, C., 2012. An interest group at work: Environmental
activism and the case of acid mine drainage on Johannesburg’s West Rand. Africa Institute
of South Africa.
Sakala, C., 2014. Environmental Activists Protest Mining in Lower Zambezi National Park.
Zambia Reports, 3 February 2014.

Question 7
Stakeholder engagement is the process used by an organization to have interaction with the
relevant stakeholders for a purpose to achieve accepted outcomes (Jeffery, 2009).
Stakeholder engagement happens during planning, assessment, implementation and
management of proposals or activities (DEAT, 2002). In DuPont’s case the stakeholders that
the company should have engaged with are; the Tennants Farm, the people from Parkersburg
and Little Hocking, Department of Environmental Protection, West Virginia Department of
Natural Resources and Local Health Department.
Stakeholder Engagement in Integrated Environmental Management
DuPont chemical company did not implement the Integrated Environmental Management
philosophy. Integrated Environmental Management takes a holistic and strategic approach,
not only looking at the job benefits a factory like Du Pont may bring, but also the effects on
communities over a much larger scale (Margerum, 1999). Stakeholder engagement is part of
the Integrated Environmental Management (IEM) philosophy (Margerum, 1999). Normally
in the establishment of the landfill site an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) could
have been conducted, which is a tool for IEM.
Almost the entire process of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) involves
stakeholder engagement (DEAT, 2012). There are specific objectives of the engagement
process for the different stages of an EIA (DEAT, 2012). In the screening stage the
objectives are to identify stakeholders, inform stakeholders about the proposal, establish
commitment to the stakeholder engagement process and establish boundaries for stakeholder
engagement process (Canter, 1996). In the scoping stage the objectives are to ensure all
relevant stakeholders have been identified and invited to engage in the process; provide
opportunity for stakeholders to contribute issues of concern and suggestions for enhancing
potential benefits; to agree on a plan and approach for future stakeholder engagement;
identify potential issues of conflict and engage in proactive conflict management (Canter,
1996). According to Canter (1996), in the special studies stage the objectives are to inform
stakeholders on what is being assessed and keep stakeholders informed during the course of
the specialist studies to maintain interest and prevent alienation from the process. In the
environmental impact statement/report stage the objectives are to provide opportunity for

stakeholders to comment, test the acceptability of proposed mitigation measures and if trade-
offs are required, identify areas of conflict and adopt a proactive approach to conflict
management (Canter, 1996). In the decision-making stage the objectives are to inform (with
reasons) stakeholders of the decision made, explain conditions attached to the decision
(which will include the opportunity for involvement in monitoring of the construction and
operational phases of the development) and assist in the selection of the most desirable
alternative (Canter, 1996).
The lesson that IEM Practitioners can learn from the DuPont case is that it is important to
engage with all the interested and affected parties in any activity or development involving
the environment and the people. The DuPont case shows that nothing remains hidden forever
and social and environmental justice will prevail in the end.

Canter, L.W. (1996) Environmental Impact Assessment, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Inc.
DEAT (2002). Stakeholder Engagement, Integrated Environmental Management, Information
Series 3, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), Pretoria.
Margerum, R.D. (1999). Profile: Integrated Environmental Management: The Foundations
for Successful Practice. Environmental Management 24 (2): 151—166.
Jeffery, N. (2009). Stakeholder engagement: A road map to meaningful engagement.

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