MULTIPLE this paper, they discuss mainly about the

MULTIPLE
EDGE DETECTION APPROACH FOR FILTER REALIZATION

 

 

 

 

V.Devanathan1,

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T.Kamala Kannan2,

M.Phil Research Scholar,

Assistant Professor,

Dept of Computer Science,

Dept of Computer Science,

Vels (VISTAS),

Vels (VISTAS),

[email protected],

[email protected],

 

 

Abstract:

 

Edge Detection is an important
terminology in image processing and computer vision. The image edges are
detected to significantly reduces the amount of data and filter out the useless
information, while preventing the important structural properties in an image.
For the purpose of Security and Authentication Biometrics is used it observes
the biological quality that is unique and quantitative like Filter, face,
colour of eye, etc. It is beneficial to have a good understanding of Edge
Detection algorithms for the uniqueness of human Filter Realization system
mainly used for eye capturing, image pre-processing, edge detection, feature
extraction and pattern matching. In this paper the comparative analysis of
various Image Edge Detection like Canny, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG), Robert,
Prewitt, Sobel techniques exhibit for the better performance is been
determined.

 

Keywords: Edge Detection,
Biometrics, Filter Realization

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

1.       Introduction

 

In this paper, they discuss mainly about the

 

mathematical theorems and
algorithms used in image processing. Digital Image Processing is the use of
computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images 1. Since the
use of complex algorithms are allowed, digital image processing can be more
sophisticated on

 

performance at simple tasks, and
the implementation of methods which would be impossible by analog means. The
uses include feature extraction and pattern recognition, for which to occur,
the identification of the edges is very important 3. Here, we emphasize on
the Canny Edge Detection and the Sobel Edge Detection. With the fast computers
and signal processors available in the 2000’s, digital image processing has
become the most common form of image processing and is general used because it
is not only the most versatile method but also the cheapest 2. Firstly,
images are a measure of parameter over space, while most signals are measures
of parameter over time. Secondly, they contain a great deal of information;
image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is
an image, such as frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but
can be, for instance, it can be a set of features of the image.

 

Edge
detection is a process of locating an edge of an image. Detection of edges in
an image is a very important step towards understanding image features. Edges
consist of meaningful features and contain significant information 6. It significantly
reduces the image size and filters out information that may be regarded as less
relevant, thus preserving the important structural properties of an image.

 

Most
images contain some amount of redundancies that can sometimes be removed when
edges are detected and replaced during reconstruction. This is where edge
detection comes into play. Also, edge detection is one of the ways of making
images not take up too much space in the computer memory. Since edges often
occur at image locations representing object boundaries, edge detection is
extensively used in image segmentation when images are divided into areas
corresponding to different
objects 10. With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal
identification based on biometrics has been receiving extensive attention over
the past decade.

 

Biometrics      aims       to            accurately             identify

 

2

each identification using various
physiological or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprint, Filter, face,
retina, and hand geometry etc., recently Filter recognition is becoming an
active topic in biometrics due to its high reliability for person
identification 12. The human Filter, an annular part between the pupil
(generally appearing black in an image) and the white sclera. Has an extraordinary
structure and provides many interlacing minute characteristics such as
freckles, coronas, stripes, furrows, crypts and so on, these visible
characteristics, generally Called the texture of Filter, are unique to each
subject 7.

 

The
uniqueness of the Filter pattern is the direct result of the Individual
differences that exist in the development of the automatically structures in
the body.

 

2.       Research
Study – A Survey

 

 

Gradient-based
algorithms have major drawbacks in sensitive to noise. The dimension of the
kernel filter and its coefficients are static and it cannot be adapted to a
given image. A novel edge-detection algorithm is necessary to provide an
errorless solution that is adaptable to the different noise levels of these
images to help in identifying the valid image contents produced by noise. The
performance of the Canny algorithm relies mainly on the changing parameters
which are standard deviation for the Gaussian filter, and its threshold values.

 

The size
of the Gaussian filter is controlled by the greater value and the larger size.
The larger size produces more noise, which is necessary for noisy images, as
well as detecting larger edges. We have lesser accuracy of the localization of
the edge then the larger scale of the Gaussian. For the smaller values we need
a new algorithm to adjust these parameters. Canny’s edge detection algorithm is
costlier in comparing to Sobel, Prewitt and Robert’s operator even though, the
Canny’s edge detection algorithm has a better performance 8.

 

In this
paper, an edge detector is basically a high pass filter that can be applied to
extract the edge points in images. The edge detection is the primary step in
identifying an image object. This work has compared various edge detecting
techniques, Edges of a text image is detected using, Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian,
LOG, minimum constructor with laplacian edge detector and Filter image is used
for experimentation. The performance of these edge detection methods are
analyzed and compared by using the parameter SSIM. It has been observed that
that the minimum constructor with laplacian edge detections

 

technique have produced higher accuracy in
detection of edges compared with other edge detection algorithms 10. In this
paper, mainly discussed about two edge detectors and is performance analysis
based on Mean Square Error, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Processing Time
needed for image to detect edges. The relative performance of Canny and Prewitt
edge detection techniques is observed that Canny edge detection algorithm produces
higher accuracy in detection of edges and takes lesser execution time than
Prewitt edge detection algorithm 7.

 

In this paper, since edge
detection is the initial stage in object boundary extraction and object
recognition, it is important to know the differences between different edge
detection operators. The relative performance of various edge detection
techniques is carried out with two images. It has been observed that that the
Canny edge detector produces higher accuracy in detection of object edges with
higher entropy, PSNR, MSE and execution time compared with Sobel, Roberts,
Prewitt, Zero crossing and LoG 9.

 

 

3.        
Methodology

 

Edge detection is a method of
image segmentation process using Filter Recognization which determines the
available of an edge or line in an image and outlines them in a proper way.

 

The aim of edge detection is to
minimize the image data so that lesser amount of data is being refined.
Generally, an edge is specifying as the boundary pixels that connect two
different regions with changing image amplitude characteristics as shown below:

 

3.1.
Filter Recognition

 

This system has mainly eyed
capturing, image pre-processing, edge detection, feature extraction and pattern
matching. From all of the above edge detection plays an important role in
Filter recognition system and Edge detection techniques transform images into
edge images benefiting from the changes of grey tones in the images.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 1: Distinctiveness of human Filter

 

In spite
of the specificities of the different proposals, typical Filter recognition and
segmentation algorithms share the Structure given in figure 2 and 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2 Typical Stages of Filter

 

Recognition

 

Detection
of edges for an image may help for image segmentation, data compression, and
also help for well matching, such as image as shown in figure 1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3: Block Diagram of Filter Segmentation

 

3

 

Start

Input the Image

Filter the image using Gaussian
filter

Analyse Gaussian Filtering
Techniques

Compare various Edge detection
Techniques

Final output of image

Stop

3.3. Gaussian Filtering

In this paper, an edge detector is basically a
high pass filter that can be applied to extract the edge points in images.
The edge detection is the primary step in identifying an image object.

This work has compared various edge detecting
techniques, Edges of a text image is detected using, Sobel, Prewitt,
Laplacian, LOG, minimum constructor with laplacian edge detector and iris
image is used for experimentation. The performance of these edge detection
methods are analysed and compared by using the parameter SSIM. It has been
observed that that the minimum constructor with laplacian edge detections
technique have produced higher accuracy in detection of edges compared with
other edge detection algorithms.

Pros:

The edges of the images have been detected
accurately using Edge detection techniques

Cons:

3.2. Flowchart

 

Only       Minimum      Constructor       with

Laplacian Operator technique
produces higher accuracy but no other filtering techniques.

 

3.4 Sobel Operator

 

It is 3×3 convolution kernels.
One kernel is simply the other rotated by 90°. It is a row edge detector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table1: GX and GY of Sobel Operator

 

GX and GY are the common masks
used in Sobel Operator.

 

This figure shows the masks used
by Sobel operator.

 

The kernel can be applied
separately to input image for obtaining gradient component in each orientation
i.e. GX and GY.

 

The magnitude is:

 

|G|=?GX2+GY2

….3.1.1

And its approximation is:

 

|G|=|GX| + |GY|

….3.1.2

The orientation of angle is:

 

?=arc tan(GX/GY)

….3.1.3

 

3.5
Prewitt Operator:

 

It is similar to the Sobel
Operator and is used to detect vertical and horizontal edges in an image. The
prewitt mask operator used is as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: X & Y direction Prewitt operator

 

4

3.6
Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG):

 

The LoG of an image f(x,y)

 

is a second derivative defined as

?  =  2  /               2+  2 
/         2…3.3.1

 

It first smoothest the image and then computes the
Laplacian. This yields in double edge image; hence for finding the edge the
zero crossing between the double edges is taken.

 

The Laplacian of an image with the pixel intensity
value

 

L(x,y) is given by:

L(x,y)=  2I/                    2 +  2I/          2 ——
3.3.2

 

The  commonly  used  discrete   approximations  to

 

Laplacian filter are:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3: LX and LY of LoG Operator

 

 

4.       Analys

 

The image of Filter is considered as the input

 

for applying the edge detection techniques. First
the Filter image is filtered by using Gaussian filtering so that noise can be
removed and then edge detection is used to extract the edge points in the
characters in the Filter images.

 

Four Edge detection techniques
have been analyzed and compared to detect the edges in the Filter image. Edges
of an image are detected using Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG).
From the experimental results, the performance of Hybrid provides better result
than other edge detection techniques for Filter image.

 

This work has been calculated by
using SSIM (Structural Similarity Index for Measuring), which is used for
measuring the similarity between two images. SSIM designed to improve on
traditional methods such as Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Squared
Error (MSE). The improved SSIM measure can be used for edge detection
(Parameterization), modulating of edge tracing outputs and comparison of edge
tracing for real and fake images.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4:
Initial Output of various edge detection techniques applied in an Filter image

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 5:
Final Output of various edge detection

 

techniques
applied in an Filter  image

 

 

5.       Conclusion

 

Thus the Survey of Filter image is considered

 

as input and the image is analysed using several
Edge Detection techniques and the result analysis of various Image Edge
Detection using Canny, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG), Robert, Prewitt, Sobel
techniques is being performed and it is seen that the Hybrid LoG technique
seems to be Accurate compared and also Canny edge detector produces higher
accuracy compared to other Edge Detection Algorithm. In future, the results can
be compared by using different Edge Detection techniques like canny edge
detection, Sobel, Prewitt operators and also different parameters PSNR, SSIM
and MSE can be used.

 

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