Narmin Introduction Ecotourism has strong relationship with sustainable

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Last updated: June 6, 2019

Narmin Nasibova Alham                                                              Baku Engineering [email protected] of ecotourism using GIS. A case study ofGadabay, Azerbaijan Abstract As we know, ecotourism is a sub-part of the sustainable tourism.Recently, tourism industry, mainly ecotourism and green tourism is developing.Ecotourism is the important tool for sustainable development. In this paperdefinition of ecotourism was decribed briefly, and why GIS is necessary forplanning of ecotourism was explored and has shown. In the given articleGadabay, Azerbaijan was selected as a main direction. Because, there are a lotof forests, historial places, and ecotouristic places in Gadabay, butecotourism doesn’t develop enough in this region.

The main reason of StateStatistical Committee’s information has shown in this paper.  Keywords : ecotourism,planning of ecotourism, sustainable tourism, GIS Introduction    Ecotourism has strong relationshipwith sustainable tourism. Sustainability depends on the relationship betweenenvironment and tourism. ????rding t? Int?rn?ti?n?l ???t?urism S??i?t? :???t?urism –  is r?s??nsibl? tr?v?l t?n?tur?l ?nd ?ultur?l ?r??s th?t ??ns?rv?s th? ?nvir?nm?nt ?nd sust?ins th?w?ll-b?ing ?f l???l ????l? ?nd inv?lv?s int?r?r?t?ti?n ?nd ?du??ti?n.

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  During ???t?urism ?v?r??n? n??ds t? b?r?s??nsibl? ?s ? tr?v?ll?r ( TI?S, 2015). In addition, ecotourism shouldsatisfy several criteria such as conservation of biological even culturaldiversities through ecosystem protection, increasing of sustainable use ofbiodiversity with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern(Site Suitability evaluation for ecotourism using GIS&AHP). GeographicInformation System (GIS) used for identifying location suitability and resourceinventories according to environmental concern. To identify untouched, fragile areasGIS can play an important role. GIS can be used in tourism as a decisionsupporting tool for sustainable tourism planning, impact assessment, visitorflow management, and tourism site selection.

Therefore, the potential for GISapplications in tourism is necessary. It can also be used to determine the bestsite for a newly built tourist destination. The application of GIS is limitedin tourism but recently it has been used for park management, facilitymonitoring, visual resource assessment, and identifying suitable areas fordeveloping tourism activities.     Moreover, by using this technology it isalso possible to service management, visitor flow management, facilityinventory and resource use management and assessing impacts of tourismdevelopment (Azizur Rahman, Application of GIS in ecotourism development.

Acase study in Sundurban, Bangladesh, 2010).  Methodology During thisr?s??r?h n???ss?r? lit?r?tur? w?s r?vi?w?d ?b?ut ecotourism, ?s???i?ll?application of GIS on ecotourism, also the importance of GIS on ecotourism, andarea were explored. ?ft?r r??ding s?m? inf?rm?ti?n from related books, researchfocused on only Gadabay region of Azerbaijan. The number of tourists (localtourists, even foreign), how many people visit to Gadabay was explored. Toobtain this information had been contacted with State Statistical Committee. ?ft?rcollected all necessary data, all of them w?r? ?n?l?z?d and all inf?rm?ti?n w?s?ut t?g?th?r ?nd compared th? findings. GIS application in ecotourism and ecotourismplanningThe application of GIS in tourism research has been minimal thoughGIS technology has been discussed in the tourism literature for over a decade(Gunn and Larsen, 1988). This technology has been used in tourism researchincluding that which relates to ecotourism planning, visual resource assessmentand management, recreation and park management, facility monitoring, suitablelocation identification.

Additionally and recently, researchers have begunusing GIS in a limited fashion in applications relating to tourism marketing.The benefit of using GIS in tourism is that GIS has the ability to manipulateboth data, spatial and attributes. (Azizur Rahman, Application of GIS inecotourism, 2010)GIS can be used to provide a more holistic approach towardsproblem solving in which qualitative and quantitative information has to beprocessed.

This technology is used for collecting spatial information, storage,analysis, and display of results in the form of graphs or maps which are moreeffective to be understood by users. It is also used to promote participationat decision-making level. An integration of  GIS can also play an important role onecotourism planning because this technology is considered to act as effectivetools for storing, manipulating and analyzing important variety ofspatial data. More specifically, ‘GIS can be used to map out land covers andhabitats’ ‘monitor landscape changes’ ‘model species distribution’ and ‘predictsuitable habitats for different species’ (Fung & Wong, 2007, P.

88). Points, lines and polygons are 3 necessary elements which are usedto represent spatial information and these three terms are often used in GIS torepresent spatial data. In tourism area GIS is used to characterize tourismdestinations by using points, lines and polygons especially differentlandscape. Point features represent individual tourist attractions, for ex., acampground in a park, or a historic site along the highway. Coastal beaches andresorts often follow a linear pattern, while big theme parks or natural parksare characteristics of a polygon feature (Giles, 2003).Siteselection, is also an important use of GIS in tourism planning. For instance,by using suitable location identification tools and topology it is simplypossible to identify potential areas for further tourism development.

Thesetools are also used to define conservation andrecreation areas, facility monitoring, and visitor management and so on. Bestlocations have been determined according to engineering, aesthetics, andenvironmental constraints. GIS was used for inventory mapping, buffering(identifying areas of human intrusion) and overlays mapping (Bahaire &White, 1999, p. 163). Ecotourism development is a very sensitive issue in aparticular destination in terms of complex ecosystem and local populationhabits.

To determine untouched areas GIS can play an important role.  Studyarea description and statistic information of Gadabay Gadabay is located in Azerbaijan, its geographicalcoordinates are 40° 33′ 56″ North, 45° 48′ 58″ East. According to thecensus of the population the number of population in Gadabay is 99 thousands200 hundreds in 2017. The most highest heightsare: Goshabulag (3549 m), Godzhadagh (2217 m) and Garaarkhadzh (3549). Gadabay rayon is also famous for its mineral waters, such as”Narzan”, “Mor-Mor”, “Chaldash”, “Turshsu” and “Soyudlu narzani” (in Soyudluvillage).     2011    2012    2013   2014   2015   2016   3723    2976    1981   1344   2173   1277  Table 1. Number of overnightsof country citizens in hotels and similar establisments in GadabaySource : AzerbaijanState Statistical Comitteee      2011   2012   2013   2014    2015   2016     373   447    210    139     106     54  Table 2. Number of ovenights of foreignersand stateless persons in hotels and similar establishments in GadabaySource : Azerbaijan State StatisticalCommittee   It is clear that from the compare of tables numberof Azerbaijan citizens who travel to Gadabay is more than foreign.

Even, it canbe seen from the Table 1. number of overnights of country citizens and alsoforeign, stateless persons have decreased year-by-year.  As we know, touriststravel for different purposes.

Some of them travel for business, some of themfor recreation, hunting and so on. Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee has exploredit, below you can see this information as table format :   By purpose 2011      2012    2013     2014   2015   2016 Tourism purpose     157     29       –       –      –     – Leisure, recreation      90      29       –       –      –     – Business tourism      67       –       –       –      –     – Treatment tourism        –       –       –       –      –     – Other purpose     659    1360 1012     723   1338   722  Table 3. Number of accommodated persons by purpose oftravel in Gadabay (person)Source : Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee   By purpose    2011      2012     2013     2014    2015   2016 Tourism purpose    1042       244     9976      509    2113    137 Leisure, recreation     460       203     9765      385    2055    107 Business tourism     355       19       96       27     58     28 Treatment tourism     218        1        –        –      –      – Other purpose     245      244     250      122    365    226  Table 4. Number ofAzerbaijan citizens accommodated in hotels and similar establishments bypurpose of travel in Gadabay  Source : AzerbaijanState Statictical Committee If last 2 tables were compared with each-other it can be seen the localtourists prefer to foreign who travel to Gadabay for different purposes.Year-by-year the number of tourists has decreased. It was considered that themain reason of decreasing is that Gadabay is far away from Baku. Foreigntourist come to Baku airport when they visit to Azerbaijan and there are a longdistance between Baku and Gadabay. That’s why they only visit Baku and regionswhich is near Baku, like Quba, Qusar, Shamakhi and etc.

Actualy, there are a lot of forests, historical monuments, springs whichis provide to development of mass and alternative tourism. If governmentsupport to developing tourism routes to this area andenlighten about ecotourism potensial, touristic places around the countrycitizen and foreign tourists this time tourism can develop in this region.Because, there are enough potensial for increasing tourism.  ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???.

?????? ?? ???????, ???????????????????????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????, ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ???????. ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????????????? ????????.

? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????????, ? ???? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? – ? ?????????i ??????????????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????. ??? ??? ??? ? ??????? ????? ?????, ???????????? ???? ? ???????????????? ????. ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????. ???????? ?????: ?????????, ???????????? ??????????, ?????????? ??????,???   References :  1.     Md.Azizur Rahman , (2010).

Application ofGIS in Ecotourism Development. A casestudy of Sundurban, Bangladesh. 2.     KhwanruthaiBunruamkaew, Yuhi Murayama, (2011).

SiteSuitability Evaluation for Ecotourism Using GIS&AHP . 3.     GuanHai-ling, Wu-Liang-qiang, Luo-yong-peng , (2011). A GIS based approach for information management in ecotourism region .4.      Gunn,Larsen, (1988). Tourism potential – Aidedby computer Cartography . 5.

      F?nn?l.D, (2007). ???t?urism.

3rd ?d. N?w??rk,L?nd?n : T??l?r&Fr?n?is ?-libr?r?, ? 282,?-b??k.    Us?d link:  htt?://b??kzz.?rg/b??k/970705/?fbd2f6.      J?nnif?r H,G?l? T, (2009).

???t?urism ?nd ?nvir?nm?nt?l sust?in?bilit?.UK:Univ?rsit??f th? W?st ?f ?ngl?nd, ? 260, ?-b??k. Us?d link : htt?://b??kzz.?rg/b??k/824422/?838557.      Sust?in?bl? t?urism.

Us?d link:htt?://www.un?s??.?rg/?du??ti?n/tlsf/m?ds/th?m?_?/m?d16.html8.      Sust?in?bl? ???t?urism.

 Us?d link : htt?://m?rin?bi?.?rg/????ns/??ns?rv?ti?n/sust?in?bl?-t?urism/9.      Catalogue ofStatistical Publications.

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