Nutrition isan important characteristic for all living cells because animals and plantsneed food for energy and growth. Plants consume their food via photosynthesis. Whereasanimals rely on other animals and plants. Respiration is essential for livingcells.
This is because it releases energy via organic compounds. Respirationoccurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix of the mitochondria. Adeninetriphosphate energy is the universal energy carrier which drives the reactionfor aerobic respiration. Eventually releasing energy from consumption ofnutrients in food. Cells have external thin structures like cilia which allowthem to move.
They also move with help from the internal cytoskeleton leadingto muscle contraction. Reproduction occurs within cells to allow them to grow.There are two types of cell division mitosis and meiosis.
Mitosis is when two diploiddaughter cells are formed consisting of the same genetic material of theoriginal cell and are identical to each other. Whereas meiosis is when a zygoteis formed from fertilization of gametes producing four haploid daughter cellsand are not genetically identical. 1.2Prokaryotic cells consists of bacterial cellswhich lack complex organelles because they do not have a true nucleus or anucleolus and an endoplasmic reticulum. They also have very small ribosomes(70S). Whereas eukaryotic cells contain a true nucleus present with thenucleolus surrounded by the nuclear envelope which has nuclear pores.
Theirribosomes are larger (80S).They also have an endoplasmic reticulum with the Golgibody and lysosomes. The DNA in prokaryotic cells is circular with nochromosomes in comparison to eukaryotic cells which have linear DNA withappropriate proteins producing true chromosomes. Both of these differ fromviruses because 1.3Eukaryotic cells contain composite organellesin order to function efficiently. The nucleus is a large organelle that contains the cell’s geneticinformation.
The Golgi body is anorganelle that packages proteins and lipids into vesicles to be transported.Mitochondria are there for providing the main source of energy. Through aerobicrespiration, mitochondria generate most of the cell’s adenosine triphosphate(ATP).
Lysosomes contain acid hydrolase enzymes, which break down and digestmacromolecules and microorganisms. They originate by budding off of the Golgicomplex.