One 2 is more reliable. Described as Slow

One model of
thinking and decision making in the cognitive approach to understanding
behaviour is the Dual Processing model. Thinking is processing information, and
decision-making is a cognitive process in which one selects the logical choice
from the available possibilities.

The Dual
Processing model, developed by Kahneman, aims to explain the way that we think
and make decisions through two systems – System 1 and System 2. System 1
thinking is unconscious, based on instinct and emotions, and is described by
Kahneman as Fast Thinking. While System 1 is fast, automatic, and has a large
capacity, System 2 is slow and effortful, with a small capacity. Because of
this, System 1 is more prone to mistakes and biases, and System 2 is more
reliable. Described as Slow Thinking, System 2 is rational and logical,
requiring conscious effort. An example of the difference is in learning to play
an instrument, like the guitar. When first learning, System 2 is required to
figure out where to place the fingers, how to strum, how to change fingers,
etc. With practice however, playing the guitar can become automatic, a System 1
activity. Some other examples of System 1 and System 2 thinking is Algorithms
and Heuristics. Algorithms are an example of System 2, as they are precise
processes that lead to the right solution. For example, math formulas, or
recipes. Heuristics are mental shortcuts. One example is the availability
heuristic, which is related to judgment based on how easily examples are
thought of.

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One study that
supports the Dual Processing model is Ross & Sicoly (1979). This study
looked into the availability heuristic, aiming to investigate fairness in group
project settings. A field study was conducted, and different groups of people –
e.g. married, academics, sports – were asked about their contributions to their
respective groups. The results showed that people were more likely to remember
their own contributions that those of others, which supports the availability
heuristic, and by extension the model. The Dual Processing model provides
insight into the cognitive processes of thinking and decision making.




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