Oral production or speaking is one of the
main skills in language learning, there are lots of definitions on speaking.
The researcher reviews some of them.
First, Nation and Newton (2008) stated
that speaking is a presenting point of view on a definite theme. Consequently,
speaking can be defined as the simple prominent skill to be studied in a
foreign language and as a meaningful interaction between learners’.
In the second definition Nunan (1988) declared
that speaking is the one of the main skills which carries out a conversation.
In other words, the most significant aim of learning a foreign language is to
communicate and convey the message.
Third, Richards and Renandya (2002)
declared that speaking skill is difficult for non-native learners’ as it is the
ability to use the language in social interaction (Cited in Fahim & Koleini,
2014). In light of the above definitions, it can be achieved that speaking is a
vital instrument for conveying the message in a foreign language. They also
added that (2002) the effective speaking is the talent to use the language properly
in social communications by applying not only verbal communication but also
para-linguistic and non-linguistic elements of speech. Such as pitch, stress,
intonation, gestures, body language, and expressions to convey messages
precisely. Speaking cannot be isolated from language learning in light of the
fact that it is a productive skill which assesses one’s change on language
Chaney’s (1998) definition defines that the
oral production is the procedure of building and sharing meaning through using
verbal and non-verbal elements of language in different contexts. According to
Nunan (2003) the process of teaching learners to know how to produce the English
language patterns and also producing words and sentences in the second language
is teaching speaking skill.
Thornbury (2005) also emphasized the point
that speaking is a type of skill that similar to any other skill, such as
driving related to your repetition, the more practice you get. So if you learn
the more chunks you can speak more fluent. Brown (2001) believed that the vital
goal of the successful achievement of language is to demonstrate it in practical
goals (Brown, 2001).
Moreover, Brown (2007) stated that
interactive language functions are important keys to convey the meaning. Like
body language, gestures, eye contact, physical distance and other nonverbal
messages. Brown and Yule (1989) believed that there is difference between
spoken language and written language. They also differentiate between two basic
language functions, i.e. the transactional and the interactional functions. The
former basically concerns the transfer of information. In this regard Nunan (1989)
identified successful oral communication: