Oral production or speaking is one of themain skills in language learning, there are lots of definitions on speaking.The researcher reviews some of them. First, Nation and Newton (2008) statedthat speaking is a presenting point of view on a definite theme.
Consequently,speaking can be defined as the simple prominent skill to be studied in aforeign language and as a meaningful interaction between learners’. In the second definition Nunan (1988) declaredthat speaking is the one of the main skills which carries out a conversation.In other words, the most significant aim of learning a foreign language is tocommunicate and convey the message. Third, Richards and Renandya (2002)declared that speaking skill is difficult for non-native learners’ as it is theability to use the language in social interaction (Cited in Fahim & Koleini,2014).
In light of the above definitions, it can be achieved that speaking is avital instrument for conveying the message in a foreign language. They alsoadded that (2002) the effective speaking is the talent to use the language properlyin social communications by applying not only verbal communication but alsopara-linguistic and non-linguistic elements of speech. Such as pitch, stress,intonation, gestures, body language, and expressions to convey messagesprecisely. Speaking cannot be isolated from language learning in light of thefact that it is a productive skill which assesses one’s change on languagelearning. Chaney’s (1998) definition defines that theoral production is the procedure of building and sharing meaning through usingverbal and non-verbal elements of language in different contexts. According toNunan (2003) the process of teaching learners to know how to produce the Englishlanguage patterns and also producing words and sentences in the second languageis teaching speaking skill.
Thornbury (2005) also emphasized the pointthat speaking is a type of skill that similar to any other skill, such asdriving related to your repetition, the more practice you get. So if you learnthe more chunks you can speak more fluent. Brown (2001) believed that the vitalgoal of the successful achievement of language is to demonstrate it in practicalgoals (Brown, 2001). Moreover, Brown (2007) stated thatinteractive language functions are important keys to convey the meaning. Likebody language, gestures, eye contact, physical distance and other nonverbalmessages. Brown and Yule (1989) believed that there is difference betweenspoken language and written language. They also differentiate between two basiclanguage functions, i.e.
the transactional and the interactional functions. Theformer basically concerns the transfer of information. In this regard Nunan (1989)identified successful oral communication: