Osteoporosis formation. After 40 years however the resorption

Osteoporosis or porous bone disease leads to an increased risk of developing spontaneous and traumatic
fractures. When looking under the microscope, healthy bone’s
honeycomb appearance is replaced with larger holes and thinner networks in
osteoporotic bone. It is a chronic condition
of multifactorial etiology and related to various factors including menopause and aging. The bone mass
is modeled (grows and takes its final shape) from birth to adulthood: bone mass
reaches its peak (referred to as peak bone mass (PBM)) at puberty;
subsequently, the loss of bone mass starts. Bone tissue is
continuously lost by resorption and rebuilt by formation. After 40
years however the resorption and formation process become imbalanced and
resorption exceeds formation. Excessive bone loss is due to an increase in
osteoclastic activity or as decrease in osteoblastic activity. As populations
age, the number of osteoporotic fractures in elderly people will increase.
Common sites of fragility fracture include the vertebral bodies, distal radius,
proximal humerus, pelvis and proximal femur. Every fracture is a sign of another impending one.   It
affects 55% of Americans aged 50 or above, of which about 80% are women. Millions
of fractures occur annually. It is anticipated that by 2025, three
million fractures will occur as a result of osteoporosis and cost more than $25
billion annually. In all
countries, osteoporotic fractures are expensive and their costs are estimated
to increase on a per-fracture basis and also because the total number of
fractures is estimated to rise. However, the net monetary burden depends on the
healthcare level and financial status of the country. With an advance diagnosis of this disease before fractures
occur and by evaluating
the bone mineral density and with prior treatment, osteoporosis can be
prevented. Therefore, increasing awareness among doctors, which, in turn,
facilitates increase awareness of the normal population, will be fruitful in
preventing this epidemic.

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