Overpopulation threat to the entire biosphere (Linkola, 2011,

Overpopulation is a global dilemma resulting in numerous negative consequences affecting ecosystems around the world. This including rainforests, wetlands, coral reefs and arctic ice. With resources depleting and more people being born every day, the current natural resources available are not enough. Thus resulting in humans having to improvise and create solutions by destroying natural ecosystems and reaping them for their resources. Furthermore, this leads down an unavoidable cycle that is ultimately destroying the earth. Ecologists such as Pentti Linkola, see human overpopulation as a threat to the entire biosphere (Linkola, 2011, pp. 201-202).  With global population continuously rising in urban and developed areas, the total capacity of these areas are not large enough to hold each person, hence resulting in urban sprawl. Furthermore, urban sprawl directly affects ecosystems and results in animal habitats and entire ecosystems being destroyed to comply with the continual population growth. This leads to animals having to migrate to habitats and ecosystems that they don’t traditionally live in, therefore affecting every single aspect in an ecosystem.     Since the time of the Bubonic Plague in the 1400’s, population growth has been on a steady increase with no occurrence since that making a dent in global populations (Rinkesh, 2017). Overpopulation is undoubtedly the root of all environmental deterioration including holes in the Ozone, global warming, pollution and many more. Moving on, overpopulation has a direct and obvious correlation with ecosystems being destroyed. As mentioned before, when an occurrence of urban sprawl comes in hand, the trail it leaves behind is often forgotten. In the wake of urban sprawl, such ecosystems such as acres of forests, farmlands, woodlands and wetlands are completely destroyed (Martin, 2013). This not only completely eradicates the specific ecosystem, but throws off the balance of surrounding ecosystems due to animals and organisms traditionally living in the destroyed ecosystem having to migrate. Overpopulation affects every single ecosystem around the globe. Marine ecosystems are strongly impacted by overpopulation simply due to the immense pollution that is emitted by large cities that is directly dumped into surrounding bodies of water. A study conducted by the Algalita Marine Research Foundation estimated that there were over 100,000,000,000 tons of plastic in the oceans. Plastic stays where it is in the ocean because it does not biodegrade like other substances does. Plastic instead photogrades, meaning that it only degrades when exposed to the sun (Wiesman, 2007). If ingested by an organism in marine ecosystems, the plastic will respectively never leave the animal’s system and will stay permanently in the animal’s digestive tract. This can overall effect the ecosystem by again throwing off it’s balance. There are many organizations that work to minimize pollution being dumped in marine ecosystems as well as many governments proposing stricter pollution laws to keep all ecosystems around the word balanced.     Biodiversity is the term describing the variety of life and the natural patterns it forms. It is the result of evolution, natural processes, and human influence. (Secretariat, 2000) Overpopulation has arguably been the biggest factor regarding biodiversity and the steady decline of it. The most obvious indicator of biodiversity is the number of species on the planet. There is an estimated 8.7 million species living on earth right now. But each year, a steady 0.1% of species go extinct, although a small fraction, that’s almost 10,000 every year. The loss of species has a direct correlation to overpopulation due to demographic, economic, sociopolitical, scientific and technological, and cultural and religious factors regarding where people want to live and how they live where they do. (Banch, 1999)     To reduce the adverse impacts of overpopulation, some measures, including spreading awareness and education about overpopulation, enacting birth control measures and regulations, and providing universal access to birth control devices and family planning, must be taken. (Law,2007)  As of now, there are very few programs and organizations to help decrease overpopulation due to the lack of knowledge surrounding overpopulation and its risks to the natural environment. Some countries such as China have created laws to regulate how many children one couple can have. This creates some ethical dilemmas regarding the law and has many people protesting and questioning China’s government and its choice to create the law. The most important and working solution to overpopulation is education regarding the subject. Without such knowledge, overpopulation will never come to an end, and neither will the problems that come with it.     Overpopulation is an issue that affects everyone and everything on earth. As biodiversity, ecosystems and lack of knowledge regarding overpopulation decreases, so do the chances of survival itself. Furthermore, it is important to educate people about living in balance with the environment in order to end urban sprawl and things alike. It’s vital to understand that we are on a planet with limited resources and there is a tradeoff with quality of life and quantity of life.(Tal, 2013) Overpopulation is the uttermost important and threatening issue in the world and without further research and solutions regarding the problem, human extinction and further extinction of other species is more than possible. As humans today, we live on an earth with infinite possibilities, but often forget to realize that the earth itself has finite resources. (Shaw,1976). Without knowledge and understanding on the topic of overpopulation, we stand no chance of continual survival on this planet. 

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