p few were adapted successfully in vehicular network

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1in; direction: ltr; line-height: 120%; text-align: left; }p.western { font-family: “Times New Roman”,serif; font-size: 12pt; }p.cjk { font-family: “Times New Roman”; font-size: 12pt; }p.ctl { font-family: “Times New Roman”; font-size: 12pt; }a:link { color: rgb(0, 0, 255); }Vehicular ad hoc networks(VANETs) are a recognised type of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),the networks in VANET are self-organized and self-configured, thecommunication between nodes is achieve through wireless medium (ZeyunNiu, 2007). Thedemands and requirements of VANET are not the same with MANET interm of routing, many routing protocols exist for MANET but few wereadapted successfully in vehicular network (JamesBernsen, 2009) . Topology Based Routing Protocol This routing protocol usespaths information available in the network for packet forwarding; thegoal is to find the shortest path from source to destination.Information about the routing is stored in the routing table.Topology Based can be classified into reactive and proactive.

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Reactive routing establishes route between nodes when the nodes needsto communicate with other nodes. In route a discovery process, aquery packets are flooded into the network for the route explorationand when route is discovered, it will be maintains until is no longerneeded. Reactive routing includes protocols such as AODV, DSR and(RakeshKumar, 2011)2.9.

2 Dynamic Source RoutingProtocol (DSR)DSRis an on-demand routing protocol that searches for a route only whenneed arises (JamesBernsen, 2009).DSR was designed for mesh like topology where each node in a networkestablish a channel of communication with any other node in thenetwork, a node firstly checks its route cache for the routeinformation corresponding to the intended node destination prior tosending the message. In the absence of route information from thecache, the node initiates route discovery by flooding the networkwith route request messages Route Request (RReq) packet to its entireneighbouring node, the nodes in turn broadcast the RReq to itsneighbours. The RReq collects the list of nodes on its path before itreaches the target destination or the node that has a legitimatesource route to the target destination. If an intermediate node has alegitimate route to the target destination, it rebroadcast RouteReply (RRep) back to the source node in inverse routing form or byinitiating another route discovery towards the source node. When abroken channel or error occurs, the route maintenance initiates aRoute Error (RErr) to the source node.

The DSR protocol supportunidirectional channel communications and multiple routescommunications, which as results can leads to huge bandwidthconsumptions(Varadharajan, 2005).



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