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Vehicular ad hoc networks
(VANETs) are a recognised type of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs),
the networks in VANET are self-organized and self-configured, the
communication between nodes is achieve through wireless medium (Zeyun
Niu, 2007). The
demands and requirements of VANET are not the same with MANET in
term of routing, many routing protocols exist for MANET but few were
adapted successfully in vehicular network (James
Bernsen, 2009) .

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Topology Based Routing
Protocol

This routing protocol uses
paths information available in the network for packet forwarding; the
goal is to find the shortest path from source to destination.
Information about the routing is stored in the routing table.
Topology Based can be classified into reactive and proactive.
Reactive routing establishes route between nodes when the nodes needs
to communicate with other nodes. In route a discovery process, a
query packets are flooded into the network for the route exploration
and when route is discovered, it will be maintains until is no longer
needed. Reactive routing includes protocols such as AODV, DSR and
(Rakesh
Kumar, 2011)

2.9.2 Dynamic Source Routing
Protocol (DSR)

DSR
is an on-demand routing protocol that searches for a route only when
need arises (James
Bernsen, 2009).
DSR was designed for mesh like topology where each node in a network
establish a channel of communication with any other node in the
network, a node firstly checks its route cache for the route
information corresponding to the intended node destination prior to
sending the message. In the absence of route information from the
cache, the node initiates route discovery by flooding the network
with route request messages Route Request (RReq) packet to its entire
neighbouring node, the nodes in turn broadcast the RReq to its
neighbours. The RReq collects the list of nodes on its path before it
reaches the target destination or the node that has a legitimate
source route to the target destination. If an intermediate node has a
legitimate route to the target destination, it rebroadcast Route
Reply (RRep) back to the source node in inverse routing form or by
initiating another route discovery towards the source node. When a
broken channel or error occurs, the route maintenance initiates a
Route Error (RErr) to the source node. The DSR protocol support
unidirectional channel communications and multiple routes
communications, which as results can leads to huge bandwidth
consumptions
(Varadharajan, 2005).

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