p.p1 season (November to January). Whilst for Indonesia,

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1. Biome type and condition 

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Singapore is located in the continent of Asia, specifically Southeast Asia. It has a total land area of 687 square kilo meters and 10 square kilometers worth of water, creating a total of 697 square kilometers. Singapore has a biome of mainly rainforest, containing lots of creatures from the biome. It has a tropical climate, a climate really similar to our home country which is none other than Indonesia. Due to the similarity in climate, the average temperature in Singapore is also similar to it is here, with an average of more or less mid 30 degree Celcius. Singapore is a country/ city located  near the equator which means that this small city only has mainly one season, which is Summer. However, rain falls do fall every now and then but will be more consistent in the monsoon season (November to January). 

Whilst for Indonesia, Indonesia is a country also located in the continent of Asia, and alike Singapore, Its located specifically in the Southeastern part of Asia. There are two types of biomes that could be found in Indonesia, the two are: humid and semi-arid tropical biome. However, the majority of Indonesia’s biome leans more towards Humid Tropical and only some parts that consists of Semi-Arid tropical. This tropical biome, similar to Singapore only have 2 seasons which we normally call dry or wet and rainy season, there are no winters, fall or autumn, only mostly summer and rainy weather.. Vegetation in Indonesia is pretty high due to this too. The temperature in Indonesia normally is around high 20s and mid 30s during the day with quite high humidity, ranging around 70 and 90 percent. 

 2. Soil conditions

Singapore is home to several different kind of rocks in the area. In different areas, you can find a different variety of rocks. For example are the finding of igneous rocks in the Bukit Timah, Pulau Ubin, and Woodlands. With these igneous rocks being found, these vast amounts makes up the existence of granite rocks. Next would be the gabbro rocks, which could be found in the Little Guilin area, in Bukit Gombak. Meanwhile, on the western and southwestern part of Singapore, the lands are mainly made of mudstones and sandstones. On the northeastern side of Singapore and Pulau Tekong, there could be found metamorphic rocks. Lastly, quartzite could also be found in the Sajahat Formation area. The farms locally produce vegetables and beansprouts, also hydroponic cultivation. 80% of Singapores vegetables are produced mainly from cultivation of soil. In order to keep the quality of the vegetables high, Singapore uses protective netting to do so. Singapore does this in order to help the country remain sustainable so that the country’s food source will not 100% rely on importing goods from outside countries. 

Indonesia in terms of its soil condition is considered very fertile. The vast and abundant amount of land of Indonesia helps Indonesia to be the world’s largest producer of palm oil, cloves, cinnamon, the 2nd largest producer of nutmeg, natural rubber, cassava, vanila, and coconut oil, the 3rd largest producer of rice and cocoa, the 4th largest producer of coffee, the 5th largest tobacco producer and the 6th largest tea producer in the world. (En.wikipedia.org, 2018) This is all due to the fertility of its soil and the condition of the area, due to Indonesia being located in a tropical region, it enjoys an abundant amount of rain and sunshine most of the time, which are the key aspect for a successful agriculture. 

3. Type of farming systems

Since Indonesia is considered as the world’s largest archipelago, with a variety of terrains, there are lots of farming systems that Indonesia can make use to produce. With some of it being corn production, rubber, rice, chilli, and etc. Vegetables in particular are massively grown throughout Indonesia in islands where there are an abundant amount of volcanic soil. Indonesia produces asparagus, spinach, snow peas, bitter melon, brocolli, carrots, chilli, cabbages, corn, mushrooms, cucumber, spring onion, kangkung, long bean, galangal, green bean, garlic, sweet potato, lettuce, ocra, egg plant, white radish, taro, leek, pepper, celery, jicama, mustard greens, pumpkin, tomatoes, shallots, potatoes, bean sprouts, lettuce, and etc. All these products of Indonesia’s farming fall mostly into commercial farming (a type of farming which focuses most on making large profits, and making the most of the area), extensive farming ( a farm type that focuses most on the vast amount of land with lower density of stocking or planting and lower inputs and corresponding outputs) , commercial farming ( a type of farming focusing most on profits) , but mainly cash cropping ( which is a type of farming mainly focusing on producing goods for the market).  

Due to the small space/ area in Singapore, there are not many land that Singapore can utilise for agricultural purposes. Singapore is packed with around 5 million people inside its very small area, and it makes the country/ city the most densely populated cities in the world. This means that they do not have enough space left to grow crops or for farmland. However, there are a number of unique ways that Singaporeans have came up with over the years to overcome this shortage in local food supply. Some of these ways are: Gro-Gro Technology/ vertical farming (more information are provided below), Hydrophonic planting, converting unused rooftops for creating a mini plantation, and using waste to grow foods. These types of planation falls to intensive farming. Intensive farming is a type of farming where the country uses their land in an intensive way, forcing the land with substances to produce its most optimal output. Another type of farming in singapore excluding its land farming is fish farming. Singapore is amongst one of the top exporter of ornamental fish, famously known by the public and fish businesses as a “one-stop shop”.

4. What influence food choice

Singapore’s influence is their political regulation “tariffs, quotas, etc.” The only obstacle or barrier in between other countries and Singapore in importing their goods are tariffs and quotas. Even though Singapore do not have or at least through secondary research do not state the presence of a strict quota, tariffs are still a big deal for the importers. Singapore mainly follows the regulations made by OIE and the Codex guidelines, this is a very strict rules but mainly it has a focus towards importing goods from the United States. AVA (Singapore’s Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority) requires lots of requirements when importing raw materials or uncooked meats. However, they do not have any restriction on businesses who have a branch in Singapore, only when there are suspiciousness or for security reasons. Singapore has a goal to be a very successful and easy country to access. They are striving to be the ultimate country to have an open economy. Another aspect that we should also consider on what influences Singapore’s food choice would be its always busy citizen and lifestyle, where they would prefer going for fast foods and going to food courts instead of cooking their own food. Singapore are pretty well known for its vast amount of options of good foods, you will never eat a bad food in Singapore. Food is apart of its lifestyle, which leads me to another point which is, this will also depend on the individual’s social class. Different social class will definitely have different food choice and when their social class changes, so will their food choice. 

Indonesia on the other hand has very different factors that influences their food choices. Some of the factors are: geographical region, culture, tradition, and social class. Reasons are, Indonesia has very many different cultures depending on their region. Every side of Indonesia has their own region with different taste and preferences. For example, people who are living in the Java island have different preferences in what they want for food with people who live in the Sumatra island. Javanese typically enjoys food which are sweet whilst people living in Bali prefers food that are mixed with various spices. This would greatly influence the food choice of the people. These things exists due to the strong tradition that have been carried around for centuries and are already widely known throughout the world. Another and last influence towards Singapore’s food choice is social class, like most countries in the world, people coming from different social class has different taste and preferences in food and have different budget on how much they want to spend on their foods. 

5. Technology 

On a technological standpoint, Indonesia, in comparison to MEDCs are lacking a step behind. Meaning that, the vast majority of Indonesian farmers still utilise traditional farming method instead of utilising technology. However, ever since 2016, Indonesia’s government has been trying its best to encourage more and more Indonesian farmers to try and start making more use of the technology that they have in hand. Indonesia is aiming to let its local producers use digital tools in order for them to be able to maximise their output and turn their farming business into e-commerce. This way of implying technology to what they are doing is by asking the farmers to provide all of their datas online, providing an open business where it has an aim to reduce speculations amongst its prices. This has an aim to both benefit producers and consumers. This project really wants to benefit the local startups in agrotech platforms. This provides information like tutorials and every data or help they need regarding their farming needs. This new programme is called “Synergised-Actions for the People Economy”. This is a serious matter for the government because, the agriculture sector in Indonesia employs 35% of the Indonesian labour force and the output of farming adds up to 13.6% of the country’s Gross Domestic  Product. 

As repeated several times above, Singapore has a really small area in comparison to other MEDCs (more economically developed countries), however, they are able to make use of a sector which they are better that compared to other countries, which is technology and utilise it for its agricultural sector. A very impressive method for them to avoid a shortage in local food supply is by creating a new method of farming called “A-Go-Gro” technology, a technology which is formerly known as vertical farming. Through this type of farming, this vertical farm can produce one ton worth of vegetables in most days and is 5 to 10 times more productive than regular farming. This new method is created by Jack Ng, the managing director of DJ Engineering who dropped out of school after Secondary 4. 

“A-Go-Gro” Technology is the first ever low carbon hydraulic water-driven system to grow tropical vegetables which are tropical vertically. This provides a large amount of yield and uses less energy, water, along with water to gain and their objectives which is to have a sustainable, green high technology farm. This “A Go Gro” technology grows its vegetables in an A- shaped towers, with each tower measuring at six meters in height. The A-frames are both easy to maintain and very simple to install, each consisting of 22 up to 26 tiers of growing plants. These towers/ technology do not let the plants overstressed like they are under the sun, yet they receive the same amount of nutrients in the water as much as they would under the sun outdoors. This technology do not need any electrical supply for it. This technology is powered by a unique gravity aided water-pulley system which uses normally one litre of water in which is taken by taking in rainwater through an overhead reservoir. Also, this method is both very beneficial and efficient because, in order to power one A-frame, the energy needed is equivalent to powering one 60 watt light bulb. Also, all the organic waste produced is reused and composted. This farming system is protected under the protection of PVC roofing along with netted walls to allow cultivation of vegetables that are normally found under the natural sunlight all year long. Like traditional farming, this type of farming does also comes with costs, such as costs to buy soil, seed, and electricity. However, the electricity bill only comes at $3.00 a month for each of the pillars. 

Surprisingly, this method of vegetable planting produces higher aggregate output than it is to the traditional growing method. Not only that they are producing more output compared to the traditional way of farming, however they are also safe, fresh, and produces high quality results. Some of the examples of the vegetables that are grown in this place are: spinach, chinese cabbage, xia bai cai, lettuce, cai xin, bayam, gai lan, kang kong, and etc. Its only a matter of space, and if the company were to expand its space, more vegetables varieties will be able to be produced. 

6. Politics for food supply

It was reported that a typical Singaporean takes in more than 300 eggs, 70 packages of leaf vegetables, 300 small bowls of rice, 20 whole chickens, and 30 whole fish each year. And to make things worse, Singapore imports 90 per cent of its good from 160 different countries and they are very dependent towards those countries. This causes Singapore to be very elastic towards changes in price from their importing country. However, even though the majority of their crops are taken from importing goods from outside, the government of Singapore still tries their best to support local producers in purchasing techs to push local production. To date, 20 farms from 17 different companies have gained the profit earned by Agriculture Productivity Fund that was launched by AVA (Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore. A Singaporean spokesman said that by maintaining a close relationship with different importers and new markets, their supply would come from more sources and this will lead to reducing the elastic market that Singapore is having today. If Singapore were to increase they’re local production in a more effective manner, they believe they can be more self-reliant overtime. Another recommended way is to rely on the vertical farming system supplied by the “A-Go-Gro Technology” which could produce five to ten times more output than traditional farming. 

Food security in Indonesia is mainly based around Indonesia’s constitution/ UUD 1996 number 7 under the section of ‘Food’. Which states that every household and individual should have the needed access to the safe, adequate, and nutritious availability of food to meet the needs for an active and healthy life. Although Indonesia’s government aims to achieve success of the people in Indonesia by increasing the national food security, not all distributions in the market are fair. This results in most citizens who live in the rural areas to not receive the amount of food actually needed for human beings to live. 

A specific case comes from the newspaper not so long ago. Its a report on how babies who are malnourished and women stayed in the hall of a church in Agats, Asmat regency, in Papua. From the total of 85 children who suffers from malnutrition and measles, almost half of them are being treated in the hospital due to their condition. Even though a number of workers have been trying to help them, however, there are only a limited number of aid and food provided on the site. 

With the forever rising of price levels in Indonesia, and a stable inflation, this means that vegetable prices are increasing too. This means, with the always stagnant or even the fall in people’s average income, some are not able to meet their own daily needs. This proofs how the government of Indonesia are unable to support or at least create a stable market in order to help the lower class society. The lack of Indonesia’s structure creates a problem in food distribution too, which is why as we can see from the last two day’s newspaper article, some people living in rural areas are lacking in food, and we can see how the government only focuses on its capital city and not exactly the people living in the country. 

Even though Indonesia is pretty well known as a country full of agricultures, some of its vegetables and fruits are still imported from outside countries (mainly due to quality).  It was recorded from Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) that there actually was an increase in the imports of Indonesia’s fruit and vegetable value. This clearly is humiliating for a country full of agricultural products. However, this might be a result in the ever growing Indonesia’s infrastructure and its aim to be a more modern city and the always developing country, which causes it to import some of its goods from other countries. 

7. How this country improve sustainability of food supplies

In my opinion, the only way Singapore can improve its sustainability of food supply would only be by creating more of the pillars stated above and making use of the rooftops of the vast amounts of skyscrapers they have. Because Singapore have no other way in making use of their land, the only strategy left is to continue building what they have been building and make it more efficient. Whilst for Indonesia, there are still lots of things that Indonesia can do to improve sustainability for its food supply. Indonesia can really look up to Singapore in terms of its methods of growing their crops and remaining sustainable. As we can see from examples provided and shown above, there are lots of methods that can be implemented in Indonesia. methods like the examples provided in the technology section can all be utilised in Indonesia and Indonesia will eventually be a really big exporter of crops and everything else. I really believe that through the results already gained by the company behind the “A-Go-Gro” technology, Indonesia can really be very successful in terms of producing its maximum output, therefore, Indonesia really should see examples abroad that are successful and implement it on its own country. 

8. Any unsustainable agricultural techniques

Singapore has been in my opinion trying its best and have been doing its best in trying to imply everything they know about producing maximum agricultural outputs into reality. All of their current methods in producing agricultural goods have been their most recent innovations and they have always been trying to improve every time. Seeing based on my research, Singapore has been very sustainable in making use of what they have and I really believe that they will try in every way possible to not be unsustainable because of the lack of space they have. 

Whilst for Indonesia, I really believe that there are many sections of their current way of agricultural techniques that can be improved. Some of the ways where Indonesia can improve its agricultural techniques would be in being efficient with the land they already have. Indonesia have an abundant of land but the farmers aren’t producing its outcome as efficient as they can be. Some reasons on why they aren’t being efficient even though they have an abundant amount of land are because, there are lots of political manipulations behind it, corruptions are still a problem too, and most of the farmers in Indonesia are not as well educated as the buyers so most of them are fooled by the smarter buyers. However all of this could be improved if and only if all of these hidden factors could be changed and more of the local producers are more educated than they are now. Without this, even with the abundance of land that Indonesia have today, they will only be able to produce the same amount every year until the future without any change, and it wouldn’t be funny to see if Singapore can end up producing more outcome than Indonesia. 

9. Any sustainable agricultural techniques. 

Singapore in direct comparison to Indonesia have way more sustainable agricultural techniques, however but this will come to no surprise to us at all. Even though Singapore have a really small plot of land, however they have been implementing new modern techniques along with the usage of technology in order to help them produce maximum output.  And unfortunately, I really believe that to date, Indonesia is still rated as unsustainable and there are no agricultural techniques yet. Most of the techniques that Indonesia have been using from then until now are still mainly the traditional way of growing crops. I really hope that Indonesia can start learning from MEDCs because with the amount of land that Indonesia got, there are still lots of opportunities for Indonesia to be improved in.

10. What can be applied in Indonesia. 

I believe there are two very important lesson that I can take from doing this research and can tell in to what can be applied in Indonesia production wise. Two of the important things that can be applied in Indonesia would be the method of plantation and the technology involved in growing the crops to make it more efficient. Indonesia really should make use more of its land in a more efficient way, we should start educating the farmers and stop letting the buyers manipulate them in selling the crops in a cheaper price. Next thing would be, the government of Indonesia should really start putting price flooring on the production of agricultural goods. By this, the local producers would have a more stable income and the market could avoid the presence of monopoly. Through it, i believe that it would really help the producers in such a massive way and that it would create an incentive towards the local farmers to be producing more of the goods. Lastly would be, by implementing (as explained many times before too) the technologies that have been used by Singapore in order for them to try be sustainable. All of the methods that they have been trying to implement and have been implementing in my opinion would help Indonesia in a significant way. 

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