Parenting were being asked about generational differences (Acock

Parenting
is the act of giving of necessary support to a child for their physical,
emotional, social, and cognitive development (Baydar, Akç?nar, & ?mer,
2012). Since modernization is a continuous process, raising a child in the
period of modernization could be a challenging task as a parent due to the newly
developed technologies and scientific advances offered by the new millennia. The
older generations, as parents to the millennial generation, grew up on a
different time period, lived from a different social-environment, and acquired a
different set of values and behaviors. The parents, as well as their parenting
as they raise a child, should also adapt with the modern age.

Parents
have a tremendous influence to their children, which will be the next
generation of adults. According to Dempsey, Kimicik & Horn (1993) the
family unit, particularly the parents, is important for the development of
young children’s activity-related attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and
behaviors. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) proposed that young
individuals learn by observing others. Many studies were conducted and support
this view. Parents affect their children’s physical activity (Thompson, Flumbert,
& Mirwald, 2003), academic values (Gniewosz and Noack, 2012), social
adjustments ( D’Angelo, Weinberger, & Feldman, 1995),  intergroup attitudes (Degner & Dalege,
2013), political and religious attitudes (Jennings, Stoker, & Bowers, 2009)
etc.

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Generational
theory proposed that when people are born within a 20 year time period, have a
location in history, share common beliefs and behavior, and posses a sense
membership within the generational group, generational cohorts emerge (Strauss
& Howe, 1991). Many researches concerning about the generational gap among
parents and their adolescent or young adult children were conducted during the
1960s and 1970s, although, the actual differences in beliefs and values between
parents and their adolescent children were found to be minimal or insignificant
(Jacobsen, Berry, & Olson, 1975). Lamm and Meeks (2009) suggested that
‘differences can be generalized to the mean cohort level’ (p. 615).  In contrast, it is proposed that wrong
questions were being asked about generational differences (Acock and Bengtson,
1980). According to Acock and Bengtson (1980), “Rather than ask, ‘To what
extent is the generation gap real?’ we ask, ‘Where is the reality of the
generation gap?'” (p. 502). Researches were conducted and pursued this
question. It is found that youth perceptions of parental attitudes, not the
actual parent attitudes, were surprisingly strong predictors of young adults’ self
reported attitudes. It is assumed that the generation gap exists when perceived
differences exist (Acock and Bengtson, 1980).  

 Technology is an fundamental part of
contemporary family life (McHale, Dotterer, & Kim, 2009; Vogl-Bauer, 2003;
Wartella & Jennings, 2001), which directed attention to generational
differences between parents and youth (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003). The
Millennial generation, born between 1980 and 2000 (Pew Research Center, 2010),
which includes contemporary young adults, is proposed to be different and unique
from the Baby Boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1960; Coomes &
Debard, 2004) and Generation X, born between 1961 and 1981, cohorts based not
only on Millennials’ access to technology, but how they have integrated
technology into their social lives (Pew Research Center, 2010).

Research
shows notable differences in the usage of present technologies by younger and
older generations (Huffaker and Calvert 2005; Chung et al. 2010; Vodanovich,
Sundaram, and Myers 2010). The younger generations prefer to use microblogging,
social networking, and other technologies for interaction and communication,
while older generations are more likely to use asynchronous tools, such as
emails. Younger generations usually use present technology for sharing personal
experiences, while older generations use it for sharing or discussing ideas.

Further,
generational differences in technological skills have been proposed, with
Millennials experiencing more proficiency and comfort with technology than
previous generations (Prensky, 2001). The distinction between generational
cohorts have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and have been perpetuated
by popular media, but little empirical support for actual generational
differences has emerged in the literature (Litt, 2013). However, consistent with
Acock and Bengtson’s (1980) conclusions in their generation gap research, a few
qualitative studies identified perceived generational differences in technology
skills between parents and their children (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003).

Modernization is a
comprehensive concept that illustrates the transition of a society from ancient
to modern culture (Kumar & Mittal, 2014). According to Inkeles and Smith
(1974) a  modern man has the readiness
for new experience and openness to innovation and change, and the capability of
forming or holding opinions over large numbers of problems and issues that
arise not only in immediate environment but also outside of it. The development
and modernization of technology had made people’s life easier and contributed
positively to social well being so for while it has also brought about some
problems (Krithika and Vasantha, 2013). Parents and their children, the
millennial generation, do not belong in the same generational cohort resulting to
a completely different set of values and behaviors because they experienced
different events during their formative years (Howe & Strauss, 2003). This
study aims to examine the relationship between parenting and modernization
attitudes of Kapampangan parents.

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