Parentingis the act of giving of necessary support to a child for their physical,emotional, social, and cognitive development (Baydar, Akç?nar, & ?mer,2012).
Since modernization is a continuous process, raising a child in theperiod of modernization could be a challenging task as a parent due to the newlydeveloped technologies and scientific advances offered by the new millennia. Theolder generations, as parents to the millennial generation, grew up on adifferent time period, lived from a different social-environment, and acquired adifferent set of values and behaviors. The parents, as well as their parentingas they raise a child, should also adapt with the modern age.
Parentshave a tremendous influence to their children, which will be the nextgeneration of adults. According to Dempsey, Kimicik & Horn (1993) thefamily unit, particularly the parents, is important for the development ofyoung children’s activity-related attitudes, beliefs, preferences, andbehaviors. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) proposed that youngindividuals learn by observing others.
Many studies were conducted and supportthis view. Parents affect their children’s physical activity (Thompson, Flumbert,& Mirwald, 2003), academic values (Gniewosz and Noack, 2012), socialadjustments ( D’Angelo, Weinberger, & Feldman, 1995), intergroup attitudes (Degner & Dalege,2013), political and religious attitudes (Jennings, Stoker, & Bowers, 2009)etc. Generationaltheory proposed that when people are born within a 20 year time period, have alocation in history, share common beliefs and behavior, and posses a sensemembership within the generational group, generational cohorts emerge (Strauss& Howe, 1991).
Many researches concerning about the generational gap amongparents and their adolescent or young adult children were conducted during the1960s and 1970s, although, the actual differences in beliefs and values betweenparents and their adolescent children were found to be minimal or insignificant(Jacobsen, Berry, & Olson, 1975). Lamm and Meeks (2009) suggested that’differences can be generalized to the mean cohort level’ (p. 615). In contrast, it is proposed that wrongquestions were being asked about generational differences (Acock and Bengtson,1980).
According to Acock and Bengtson (1980), “Rather than ask, ‘To whatextent is the generation gap real?’ we ask, ‘Where is the reality of thegeneration gap?'” (p. 502). Researches were conducted and pursued thisquestion. It is found that youth perceptions of parental attitudes, not theactual parent attitudes, were surprisingly strong predictors of young adults’ selfreported attitudes. It is assumed that the generation gap exists when perceiveddifferences exist (Acock and Bengtson, 1980).
Technology is an fundamental part ofcontemporary family life (McHale, Dotterer, & Kim, 2009; Vogl-Bauer, 2003;Wartella & Jennings, 2001), which directed attention to generationaldifferences between parents and youth (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003). TheMillennial generation, born between 1980 and 2000 (Pew Research Center, 2010),which includes contemporary young adults, is proposed to be different and uniquefrom the Baby Boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1960; Coomes &Debard, 2004) and Generation X, born between 1961 and 1981, cohorts based notonly on Millennials’ access to technology, but how they have integratedtechnology into their social lives (Pew Research Center, 2010). Researchshows notable differences in the usage of present technologies by younger andolder generations (Huffaker and Calvert 2005; Chung et al. 2010; Vodanovich,Sundaram, and Myers 2010). The younger generations prefer to use microblogging,social networking, and other technologies for interaction and communication,while older generations are more likely to use asynchronous tools, such asemails.
Younger generations usually use present technology for sharing personalexperiences, while older generations use it for sharing or discussing ideas. Further,generational differences in technological skills have been proposed, withMillennials experiencing more proficiency and comfort with technology thanprevious generations (Prensky, 2001). The distinction between generationalcohorts have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and have been perpetuatedby popular media, but little empirical support for actual generationaldifferences has emerged in the literature (Litt, 2013).
However, consistent withAcock and Bengtson’s (1980) conclusions in their generation gap research, a fewqualitative studies identified perceived generational differences in technologyskills between parents and their children (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003).Modernization is acomprehensive concept that illustrates the transition of a society from ancientto modern culture (Kumar & Mittal, 2014). According to Inkeles and Smith(1974) a modern man has the readinessfor new experience and openness to innovation and change, and the capability offorming or holding opinions over large numbers of problems and issues thatarise not only in immediate environment but also outside of it. The developmentand modernization of technology had made people’s life easier and contributedpositively to social well being so for while it has also brought about someproblems (Krithika and Vasantha, 2013).
Parents and their children, themillennial generation, do not belong in the same generational cohort resulting toa completely different set of values and behaviors because they experienceddifferent events during their formative years (Howe & Strauss, 2003). Thisstudy aims to examine the relationship between parenting and modernizationattitudes of Kapampangan parents.