Periodontitis the dentogingival barrier and the turnover of

Periodontitis
is a prevalent multifactorial inflammatory condition characterised by loss of
supporting periodontium and aggressive destruction of gingival tissues. Factors
affecting periodontal health are malnutrition, oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic
factors, systemic health, and nutrition etc. It is caused when host resistance
is reduced and the virulence factor of an organism is increased resulting in
periodontitis.

 

Deficiency of
vitamins cause periodontal destruction, though the exact mechanism is still
unknown. Vitamin deficiency may affect any of the basic periodontal defence
factors such as the integrity of the dentogingival barrier and the turnover of
its constituent cells. Therefore, nutritional imbalance throughout the life
cycle can impair healing and tissue regeneration leading to increase susceptibility
to oral infections .The B-complex vitamins are involved cell metabolism, repair
and regeneration. They are quintessential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Cobalamin
reduces ribonucleotides as it acts as a hydrogen-acceptorco-enzyme. Therefore
it has a pivotal role in growth and marrow haemopoiesis.This makes them
essential for the production of new cells for tissue formation and maintenance.

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Deficiency of
Vitamin B12, an essential dietary nutrient,produces serious complications. The
most common oral symptoms found in Vit B12 deficiency is Glossitis (
Inflammation of tongue) and Glossalgia (A burning or painful
sensation in the tongue. Also called glossodynia). Classical ‘
beefy red tongue’ is also found .Deficiency occurs due to  loss of the integrity of the oral mucosa. The
oral manifestations include pale mucosa, atrophic tongue , eryethematous
patches on labial or buccal mucosa , psuedomembranous or  erythematous  candidiasis, angular cheilitis, recurrent
aphthous stomatitis ,glossitis, taste degeneration and a burning mouth.. Severe
B12 deficiency can result in macrocytic anemia or megaloblastic anemia due to
impaired erythropoiesis  , deranged
mental status,  myelopathy, loss of
memory, paresthesia,. B12 deficient mothers can develop growth abnormalities,
anemia, and convulsions in infants that are breast fed.

 

Deficiency of
Vitamin B12, an essential dietary nutrient,produces serious complications.
Vitamin B12 is only found in foods of animal origin and is absent in vegetables
and fruit. Vitamin B 12  found
as cobalamin ( containing cobalt ) is not derived from plants or animals, they
are  produced by small microorganisms like
yeast, fungi and molds. They have various synonyms like cobrynamide, cobamide, cyanocobalamin,
cobinamide, aquocobalamin, cobalamin, , hydroxcobalamin, and nitrotocobalamin.
This vitamin requires a substance called ‘ Intrinsic factor’ for its entry into
the Gastro – intestinal tract . IF is an unique protein ( glycoprotein)
secreted by parietal cells of gastric mucosa which helps in the absorption of
VitB12 in distal part of ileum and facilitates its transport across stomach and
the intestines. Malabsorption in the intestines is often the main cause for the
deficiency of this vitamin. B12 is often inadequately absorbed in deficiency of
intestinal transport proteins of cobalamin or because of impaired production of
Intrinsic factor in conditions like pernicious anaemia, gastrectomy or
gastrointestinal diseases, medications, vegetarianism and inadequate nutrient
intake.

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