PriyaVontikommu Science Fair Part 1PurposeThepurpose of this project is to compare how acid rain affects the growth ofbrassica Rapa plants. This is importantbecause in areas of high pollution, acid rain slows down the growth of plants inareas such as china and India where farming is a crucial part of the economy,acid rain prevents the growth of rice and other staples. As human populationgrows, and industrial development continues to grow, the consequences of acidrain on crops could be catastrophic to an economy. At the same time, acid rain also impedes thegrowth of regular plants resulting in less oxygen and more CO2 in the air.
Hypothesis:If brassica Rapa plants are watered using 3 different pH levels of water (6.0,4.0, 2.0), then the plants will grow and produce the most flowers with a pHlevel of 6 because sulfuric oxide damages the plant’s roots and damages thenutrients in the soil, so the plant won’t be able to produce many flowers andthe plant growth will be stunted. Review of Literature I.IntroductionCountriesall around the world suffer from pollution, whether its air, water, or noisepollution. According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of peopleliving in urban areas, that are monitored, are exposed to air quality levelsthat exceed the limits to keep healthy. Asurban air quality decreases, the risk of stroke, heart disease, lunch cancer,and chronic and acute respiratory diseases increase for the people live in thearea.
Pollution not only affects humans, but also it has a major effect onanimal life. In the Artic, the sounds of oil and gas explorations are so loudthat sea life have had difficulty feeding and breeding. Light pollutiondisrupts circadian rhythms for both humans and animals alike. Clean freshwateris an essential part of healthy human life, but 1.
1 billion people have noaccess to water, and don’t have adequate sanitation. Water becomes pollutedfrom toxic substances, such as organic, inorganic, or even radioactive waste. Carbondioxide, a greenhouse gas, is the main pollutant on earth. Though living thingsemit carbon dioxide as they respiration, it considered to be a pollutant whenassociated with humans burning fossil fuels such as gasoline and natural gas.In the past 150 years, humans have pumped enough carbon dioxide into theatmosphere to raise its levels higher than they have been for hundreds ofthousands of years. Industrial processes also emit particulate matter, such assulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and other harmful gases Sulfur dioxide, acomponent of smog, is a pollutant associated with climate change. Sulfurdioxide and closely related chemicals are known primarily as the cause of acidrain.
Also reflect light when released in the atmosphere, which keeps sunlightand causes the Earth to cool. Most of the sulfur dioxide released into theenvironment come from electric utilities that burn coal. II.Brassica RapaBrassicaRapa is an annual species in the Brassicaceae (the cabbage or mustard family)form which other vegetable varieties have been developed. The species is thought to be from Europewithout many subspecies developed in Asia.
The species is now found throughoutthe United States. The oil made from theseed is sometimes called canola. The plant shows variation in growth, form, andcharacteristics. Herbaceous plants grow from 8″-36″ with large plants beinghighly branched in the upper half of the plant.
Its flowers have both male andfemale parts, and are grouped into clusters at the top of each stem. Flowers,consisting of 4 yellow petals, are insect-pollinated. It generally prefers acool climate, with full sunlight, moist to dry conditions, and a neutralalkaline soil containing gravelly matter. It is typically habitats includecropland, weedy fields, roadside, and waste areas. It is resistant to frost andmild freezes. Lower leaves are round and elongated growing up to 10″ long and2″ across, but they are usually smaller. Upper leaves have a pointed tip, and awidening clasping base. Fruits are elongated,two- parted capsule that splits open at the base to release the seeds, and theyare 1/16″ wide, nearly round, and reddish-gray to black.
It is considered ripewhen it has turned yellow or tan and has split open to expose the seeds. It Researchersat the University of Wisconsin-Madison have selectively bred one sub speciesBrassica Rapa to have an extremely short lifecycle for educational andexperimental purposes. III.
pH level of Acid RainThepH scale measures how acidic an object is. It has values ranging from zero (themost acidic) to 14 (the most acidic). Clean rain has a pH of 5 to 5.
5, which isslightly acidic. However when rain mixed with sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide,the rain becomes more acidic. Typically, acid rain has a pH of 4. A decrease inpH values from 5 to 4 means that the acidity is 10 times greater. The best way to measure pH is with a strip oflitmus paper. When you touch the strip of litmus paper to something, the paper changescolor depending on whether the substance is acidic or basic. Acid rain includesany form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitricacid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere.
It includes rain, snow, fog,hail, or even just dust. It results when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides areemitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind and air currents. SO2 and NO react with water, oxygen, andother chemicals to form sulfuric and nitric acids. Then mix with water and othermaterials before falling to the ground. Major sources of SO2 include burning of fossil fuels, vehicles and heavyequipment, manufacturing, oil refineries and other industries. Nitrous Oxide isyet another gas that contributes to pollution on Earth. It has no color at roomtemperature, but at temperatures above 70 degrees F, the gas becomes reddish browngas.
They are released into the air frommotor vehicle exhaust, or the burning of coal, oil, diesel fuel, and naturalgas. Exposure to nitrogen can cause genetic mutations, damage a developingfetus, and permanent lung damage. The nitrate particles that result from NO2make the air hazy and difficult to see through. It also contributes to nutrientpollution in coastal waters. Winds can blow SO2 and NOx over long distances andacross borders making acid rain a problem for people all around the world, notjust people who live near electrical grids. IV.
Previous ResearchAcidrain does not usually kill plants directly. Instead, it weakens the immunity ofplants by damaging their leaves, limiting their nutrients, or poisoning themwith toxic substances. Some types of soil can help to neutralize the acid –they have what is called a “buffering capacity”. The main pollutants that affecttrees are nitrates and sulphates. Acid rain damages plant roots, and stops theplant growth above the surface.
Young rootlets and plants are typically verysensitive to low pH, but more aspects of the plant can be harmed as well. The nutritive value of soil is reduced to agreat extent because the acidity of the rain also leads to soil erosion bydissolving the soil. Excess acid in soils can dissolve soil substrate, leadingto erosion, and the intake of toxic metals. Aluminum is also produced, whichdisables plants from getting water and vital nutrients, such as magnesium,calcium, and potassium from the soil. Also, the waxy layer of leaves, that protectsthe plant from diseases, are damaged.
This also effects the productivity andthe germination process. Leaves in mid growth that are the most vulnerable,while older and younger leaves are more resistant to Sulphur dioxide. At highelevations, acidic fog and clouds strip nutrients from trees, leaving them withbrown or dead leaves. The trees are then less able to absorb sunlight, whichmakes them weaker and able to withstand other dangers. Theeffects of acid rain, combined with other environmental factors leave trees andplants less able to withstand cold temperatures, insects and disease. Pollutantsalso inhibit the trees’ ability to reproduce. It is also possible that plantsand soils may temporarily store pollutants.
This disrupts the plant’sphysiological functions, especially photosynthesis.