Psychosis Anxiousness · Stress · Frustration · Fear

affects people in a way that they are out of touch with the real world or
aren’t ‘grounded’. Psychosis can be caused by depression, anxiety or bipolar.
Someone with psychosis may feel:

Out of touch

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Feeling like everyone is against them






is described as having a constant or on-going low mood – not just ‘feeling blue’.
It can affect anyone of any age, gender or religion. Someone with depression may

Lack of energy


Not being able to concentrate

Insomnia or lack of sleep



Feeling suicidal

Disorganisation of thoughts

Lack of motivation



Anxiety can cause physical and mental symptoms and is
described as either a mild or severe worry about something. A person with
anxiety may feel:

A sense of guilt








Physical things may be:



Pounding heart



is a long-term condition that causes many problems with a person’s cognitive
functions. A person with dementia may feel:







In denial


On edge


a learning disability means that a person has difficulty in learning new skills
or information and are struggling to understand or comprehend more complicated
things. Someone who has a learning disability may feel:




Difficulty in concentrating


individuals will need different care, regardless of the situation. An
individual with dementia may need more patience and focus in regards to their
individual care as they may be forgetful, confused or emotional. A person with
dementia may feel overwhelmed with a large amount of information or a change of
every day routine, so the care they will receive will need to be altered to
ensure that we do not make individuals feel worse. They may also need more
encouragement and reminding. An individual with learning difficulties may find
it difficult to understand certain information or certain members of staff or
particular routines (such as taking medicine at certain times of the day).
Being able to understand this will allow us to learn how we can provide care
that is person centred to that individual, i.e., using certain members of staff
that the individual(s) are comfortable with or allowing extra time and
attention for daily routines to ensure that the individual feels comfortable. A
person with depression may need their care monitored in a way that is different
from the others that have been discussed. Individuals that have depression or
psychosis may need their care altered as they may be triggered by certain
things, objects, people or time of the day. By changing our care we can reduce
these triggers for these individuals helps them to feel more relaxed and
comfortable being in hospital. We may need to change our choice of language,
tone, volume or choice of conversation as this may also be a trigger to an
individual. In general, we may need to alter our care to provide the very best
person centred care we can give to the individual. By learning about an
individuals’ background or brief history, this enables us to learn specifically
about the individual and allows us to alter our care to the way they need in
order to feel safe, comfortable and confident. Understanding the causes and
support allows us to understand how and why an individual may be acting or
feeling and allows us to change our way of care effectively. It
is important to keep a good and positive view on mental health, learning
disabilities and dementia, as it comes off as a domino effect. If a carer shows
and demonstrates a positive view on mental health, leaning disabilities and
dementia, then the person receiving the care will also have a positive outlook
and attitude. By ensuring that I am enabling individuals to have opportunities,
stay social and feel positive, this will positively impact their health and
enable us to build good relationships with the people in our care. Enabling and
showing positive views towards an individual will make them feel respected and
treated as an individual and as a person. Keeping a good and positive view also
sets a good example for other colleagues too. It sets out a positive
environment and allows for the stigma around such issues to be removed.
Allowing for a positive attitude changes the views of my colleagues, enabling
for a more positive, person centred care. The
social model of disability is presented by explaining that we have disabled and
excluded people and that society is one of the main contributing factors of exclusion.
The main concept of the social model of disability is that negative attitudes
and perspectives in society exist because of these barriers between people.
There are a variety of ways and are the result of society disabling. The
barriers that are included may not just be physical but may also be emotional. Attitudes
could be stereotyping, sexism, prejudice or disablism. The social model of disability
focusing on breaking down the barriers in society to ensure equality. Breaking
down barriers like accessibility – wheelchair friendly buildings,
person-centred service (e.g. Makaton for people in society for those who choose
to use a different form of communication) and ensuring that support it available
for everyone who wants/needs it. Removing barriers for social model of
disability ensures and encourages being social and gaining access to education
and employment without being discriminated, stereotyped or to be exposed to
with psychosis, depression or anxiety may feel abnormal and may feel confused
and paranoid. Some adjustments may need to be made by ensuring that the
individual is involved with everything in regards to their care (for example,
not whispering around them and showing and explaining certain results) as this
may reduce their paranoia. The individual may need more than one person to
assist them if they may be having an episode (violence, extreme paranoia) and
may need a more senior member of staff. Adjustments may need to be made by
ensuring that some or all members of staff to attend a mental health
understanding learning course. Adjustments made for people with anxiety can
include having a set of notes for staff to read to try and avoid triggers that
could heighten their anxiety. Adjustments may need to be made such as hourly
observations to keep a check on their heartrate (for example, anxiety causes an
increased heartrate). Individuals with anxiety may require more time for things
to be explained correctly so not to cause heightened anxiety and ensure that
they are able to ask questions about anything. Adjustments for individuals with
depression could be such things as allowing for more time for the individual
and enabling and allowing for a large portion of the conversation to stay
positive and optimistic – but always trying to converse about smaller tasks to
look forward to in the future, such as having a favourite food or a soon tea
round on the ward.An
individual with dementia may need their care adjusting by allowing more time to
be dedicated to the individual. A person with dementia may feel confused,
scared, emotional or anxious so it is important that we can allow for us to
give them our full attention. They may also come across as though they are not
making sense, but to themselves they are so it is important that we go along
with this and reduce their confusion. A person with dementia may need
supervision with certain tasks (taking medicine, brushing teeth) as they may
forget how to do it or what they are doing. Due to dementia affecting a part of
the cognitive ability, it is important that we can adjust our care and
encourage brain stimulating activities and exercise such as word searches,
colouring, small puzzles or taking a small walk to the end of the ward and

may need to be made in regards of a person’s care if they have learning
disabilities. They may need specialist equipment such as bigger cutlery and
individual specific equipment to help with communication and movement. We would
need to make adjustments by learning how to use the equipment correctly.
Adjustments may need to be made with communication as individuals with learning
disabilities may communicate differently, so we may need a particular member of
staff, for example a member of staff may be able to sign so can converse with
the individual. Individuals with learning disabilities may need extra time,
attention or support when doing every day activities to include encouragement
and full concentration.It
is important to identify if an individual is not having their needs met as it
contributes to their wellbeing. The first port of call I would turn to would be
to report concerns to the nurse/head nurse. They may be able to advise me on
what can be done, what I can do and what to do next. The nurse in charge may
also be able to report concerns to the Dr, or may also be able to refer the
individual to have their care plan reviewed to assess what their needs may be.
If this fails, I would report concerns to my ward sister who can overview
everything in regards of the correct people to contact or the best plan of
action for that individual. If nothing happens or I do not feel satisfied,
there are legislations and policies within the company that I can follow and
find on the ward in regards to the care of the individual. Early
detection of an individual’s needs is vital to ensure that they are receiving
the care that is most effective to them and will allow them to not only keep
their independence but also to stay social and allow for them to have a good
wellbeing. Early detection for an individual may allow them to have medication
to control some symptoms (such as swelling or headaches), or allow for their
present medication to be reviewed in case they may be dealing with side effects
and results of this. An early detection of individuals’ needs allows for a
review care plan to be re-reviewed, changed or for one to be put in to place in
regards to improving the health and wellbeing of an individual. By finding and
reporting concerns due to an individual’s needs, we may find a diagnosis which
allows us to find the best path to helping an individual and will help us to
alter and adjust our case to the individual as soon as possible. Adjustments
will need to be made in regards to someone’s care if they have a mental health
condition, learning disability or if they have dementia. Each situation and
individual is different and adjustments need to be made accordingly. Someone
with dementia will need to have their care plan adjusted to suit their needs
and wellbeing more. They may need extra support, 1:1 support and guidance and
opportunities to attend support groups, staying social and promoting a sense of
independence. Adjustments to their medications may also be needed to better
their wellbeing. Their everyday routine may need to be changed also, such as
having a carer at home, as dementia can cause memory loss (‘forgetfulness’). In
the hospital setting, adjustments may be needed in regards to an individual’s
care such as reviewing someone’s care plan to see if they need extra support,
assessments or a general change to the way that their care is given and
received. A person with mental health conditions may need many adjustments with
their care. For example, they may be experiencing certain side effects,
possibly due to their new medications, and so their medications may need to be
reviewed or changed to reduce this. Another way their care could be changed is
by raising awareness of the individual’s triggers within the hospital –
reducing the stress of the individual and enabling the positivity of their
wellbeing. Their care plan may also be reviewed to try and provide the best
extra services for the individuals such as support groups, one-to-one sessions
or therapy. Reviewing their care plan allows for us to try and find the best
course of action for the individual. A person with learning difficulties may
also need adjustments to their care, such as a change of medication to regulate
or reduce possible side effects. An individual may need extra support with
educational situations, such as 1:1, or with general life skills. They may also
need extra adjustments to their home, such as accessible bathrooms or
technology to assist them. They may also need adjustments in the way that they
individual may communication, such as reviewing the present choice of
communicating and assisting in finding the most effective way for that
particular individual.

Human Rights Act 1998 includes 16 rights that we can in the UK. It allows for
us to be treated fairly and equally. Rights can include the right to life,
right to express and the right to not be discriminated against. Legal action
can be taken if these rights are broken.


Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) protects individuals who may lack capacity in
regards to decision making. MCA helps to promote independence in regards to
individual’s making decisions where possible. Decisions that are made for
people who lack capacity are made fairly and staying effective and in the
individual’s best interest in regards to their care and wellbeing.

Act 2010 protects individuals from discrimination when in education, being a
consumer, education and more. Protection from discrimination is from:

race, religion, disability, nationality, relationship status and much more. The
equality act protects individuals from discrimination where ever they are or
what they are doing in the UK. It protects individuals with mental health
conditions, learning difficulties and dementia. From discrimination in regards
to their care ensuring that they receive the best possible care.

Care Act 2014 enables individuals to safeguard adults and prevent them from
harm, abuse and neglect. The care act enables individuals with mental health
conditions, learning difficulties and dementia to receive the best care and
ensuring that the most efficient decisions are made with the best support

act allows for individuals to access information about themselves from
companies and organisations. This act allows for individuals with mental health
conditions, learning difficulties and dementia to stay included with their care
and allows them to be aware of the information that is held about them.



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