Rapid depletion of fossil fuels has necessitated an urgent need for alternative sources of energy to cater thecontinuously increasing energy demand.
Another key reason to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels is thegrowing global warming phenomena. The renewable energy technologies include power generation fromrenewable energy sources, such as wind, PV(photovoltaic), MH(micro hydro), biomass, ocean wave, geothermaland tides. Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) combines two or more renewable energy resources withsome conventional source (diesel or petrol generator) along with storage, in order to fulfill the demand of an area(Swati et.
al, 2014). Ghana is experiencing a time of uncertainty about the ability of the interconnected system tomeet the demands of consumers for electricity. Hybrid power systems constitutes of a number of storagecomponents and power generators. To fit the local geographic conditions and other specifications, small hydroplants wind generators, PV generators and other sources of electrical energy are added to meet the energydemand of rural area (Bhushan et.al, 2016). The area flooded by the dam can also be utilized for the installationof a photovoltaic power plant. In many sites, the shading provided by the photovoltaic modules is seen as anegative point. In a dam for water supply, installing the photovoltaic modules would result in the reduction ofwater evaporation and a possible increase in the amount of water available for power generation, depending onlocal conditions (Luis et.
al, 2015). (Yandra et.al, 2012) have developed a Design & Integration of WindSolar Hybrid Energy System for Drip Irrigation Pumping Application. It involves the process of selectingthe best components and its sizing to provide cheap, efficient, reliable and cost effective renewable energy.Also, cost optimization of the wind-solar hybrid system is done in this paper to provide useful guidelinesfor small scale wind-solar hybrid system manufacturers. (Arjun et.
al, 2013) has developed a Micro-HybridPower System using Solar & Wind that harnesses the renewable energies in Sun and Wind to generate electricity2which resulted that the site is abundant in renewable energy and the hybrid nature increases the reliability andreduces the dependence on one single source. Environmentally friendly power generation technologies will playan important role in future power supply. This work present hybrid consists of a solar and micro-hydro renewablecombination along a power generator which acts as the supplement. The capability of the electric powergenerating hybrid systems is to satisfy the power demand on the atmospheric conditions. This can becharacterized as a mixed ac/dc bus hybrid system with some energy sources connected to the dc bus and othersconnected to the ac bus. Usually the PV array is connected to the dc bus via a battery charge controller, whichinitially was of the series pulse-width modulation (PWM) type. However ac bus connection of PV is also possiblewith some systems.
Micro hydro power is connected to the AC bus via a transfer switch integrated into theinverter/charger and the inverter/charger controls (Getnet et.al, 2017). Solar and water resource assessmentclearly documents sustainable and highest resource potentials for PV and water of all power technologiesavailable to the future. The hybridization of renewable energy system is possible, as per the availability ofrenewable energy sources in the particular areas.
The solar energy is omnipresent energy source. The energyconversion from solar energy to electrical energy via PV array is the only solution for better as well cleanerenergy as it is naturally harnesses the sun energy (Sweeka et.al, 2013). The hybrid power systems whichutilize renewable energy generators can be classified into three basic operations depended on time schedule.
First, on the day time, the energy is applied by PV or hydro power plant. The output voltage from PV system isDC, so the system has to use converter to convert DC voltage to AC voltage by using inverter. The output voltagefrom hydro power plant is AC . Second, at nighttime, the hybrid system supplies the electricity for consumer bythe stored energy in the battery. Last, the system is controlled to monitor by computer system (Pimnapatet.al,2013).