[pic] United International University Human Resources Management Course Code: MGT 3122 Sec: D Term paper on “Recruitment & Selection Practices of Garments in Bangladesh” SUBMITTED TO: Shayla Binta Sayeed Course Instructor School Of Business United International University DATE OF SUBMISSION: April 27, 2011 Name: Sk. Ashraf Ali Institute: United International University ID: 111083047 (Made final Questionnaire & final editing & 5 surveys) Name: Rokshana Shirin Institute: United International University ID: 111083013 (Done 2 surveys and helped in editing & preparing Questionnaire)
Name: Israt Sharmin Institute: United International University ID: 111073064 (Preparing questions, finding information and helped in editing) Name: Shamma Hoque Institute: United International University ID: 111092214 (Helped in editing & preparing Questionnaire) Name: Sharmin Ajad Shormi Institute: United International University ID: 111081200 (Helped in editing & preparing Questionnaire Done 3 surveys) Executive summary During the end of our semester we were assigned to work on a term paper, which includes Recruitment & Selection Practices in Bangladesh.
As a developing country Bangladesh has a pool of cheap labors. With the help of these pool of cheap labor Bangladesh developed a very strong garment sector. There are other countries like China, India and many more are competing with Bangladesh. It gave employment to lots of people especially women. Now Garments sector plays a vital role for the economy of Bangladesh. Recruitment & Selection practices in these garments are more or less similar. Their main resources are the labors. There are thousands of labors working in various garments industries.
Garments as an organization recruits and selects people in a slightly different way than other organizations Letter of Transmittal April 27, 2011 To Shayla Binta Sayeed Lecturer School of Business United International University Subject: Submission of term paper on Recruitment & Selection Practices in Bangladesh. Dear Sir, Here is the report that you have assigned us as a partial fulfillment of the course on Human Recourse Management. The report is on the “Recruitment & Selection Practices in Bangladesh”. We hope that the analysis that we have carried out is up to your expectation.
It has been an insightful experience for us and we have tried our best to focus all related things properly that we have. Sincerely yours, Sk. Ashraf Ali Rokshana Shirin Israt Sharmin Shamma Hoque Sharmin Ajad Shormi Declaration This is informing that the report on Recruitment & Selection Practices in Bangladesh has been prepared in partial fulfillment of the course Human Recourse Management. It has been prepared for academic purposes only. This is not copied from any book, journal, newspaper and websites. Sk. Ashraf Ali Rokshana Shirin Israt Sharmin Shamma Hoque
Sharmin Ajad Shormi Acknowledgements At first we are thankful to our Almighty Allah, who gives us strength to complete this report. Then we would like to thank our honorable course teacher Shayla Binta Sayeed for giving us the opportunity to do the report. On the design of this report, we again want to thank our honorable course teacher for providing the format and make us understand about the format and all our group members for their hard work in collecting data and other materials. So, warm thanks to them for supporting us and giving us adequate amount of data. Table of Content ______________________________________Page Introduction………………………………………………………… 01 Methodology……………………………………….. ……………. 02 Literature Review…………………………………….. 03 Discussion & Analysis Basic Questions………………………………. 07 Top Management…………………………. …. 09 Middle Management…………………………. 11 Bottom Line People………………………….. 12 __ ___________________ _____ ___ _ Recommendation…………………………….. ………15 Conclusion…………………………………………. 15 References…………………………………………. …16 Appendix Introduction As a developing country Bangladesh has a pool of cheap labors. With the help of these pools of cheap labor Bangladesh developed a very strong garment sector. There are other countries like China, India and many more are competing with Bangladesh. It gave employment to lots of people especially women. Now Garments sector plays a vital role for the economy of Bangladesh. Recruitment & Selection practices in these garments are more or less similar. Their main resources are the labors.
There are thousands of labors working in various garments industries. Garments as an organization recruits and selects people in a slightly different way than other organizations. Now what is recruitment & selection means by theory and how it is practiced in Bangladesh? Recruitment is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. This process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. In Bangladesh same process is followed.
But in garment sector recruitment is done directly because there are lots of people available for work. An organization doesn’t need to give emphasis on advertisements and other things. There are various channels of searching new employees. Among them: Internal • Job posting program • Departing employees External • Walk-ins & Write-ins • Employee referrals • Advertisement • Labor organizations • Leased employees and many more. Among them in Garments external channel is used in most cases for finding new employees. In top management internal channels are given more emphasis tan external channels.
On the other hand selection process means a series of specific steps used to decide which recruits should be hired. The process begins when recruits applies for employment and ends with the hiring decision. In garment sector selection process is very much easier than other organization. Other organization does a lot of verifications and takes a lot of tests before hiring an employee. Garment also checks a lot of things before hiring but getting a job in garments is much easier. Maximum employees are workers and labors. As a result when organization needs labor pool of candidates apply directly by watching vacancy advertisements.
Some established garments often give vacancy adds in newspapers but on general they make a banner or poster and places it in front of the organization. By watching those advertisements people apply for the job. After a single interview they get selected. If they want mid or top level managers then the process varies. Methodology For identifying the recruitment and selection practices in Garments sector in Bangladesh, we prepared a questionnaire related to the topic. As the recruitment & selection process varies from their level or position, we have divided the total organization into three parts. Top Management • Middle Management • Bottom Line People The questionnaire is made in four parts. First part is the basic questions about overall recruitment & selection process. Second, how the organization search for top management people. Top management people include CEO, MD, Vice-chairman, Chairman etc. Third, how organization search and hires mid level employees like managers, divisional heads, supervisors and many more. The final part contains questions about hiring bottom line people like workers, labors etc.
We have selected 10 garments in various locations in Dhaka and went there for finding those answers. We have visited each organizations employee and tried to find the answers. We searched for those employee who is directly involved in selecting new employees. Based on their answer we have prepared this term paper. Literature Review According to the research of A R Devis, a researcher from University of California we can describe the recruitment and selection process by following ways. Recruitment refers to the process of attracting; screening, and selecting qualified people for a job.
For some components of the recruitment process, mid- and large-size organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies. The recruitment industry has four main types of agencies: employment agencies, recruitment websites and job search engines, “headhunters” for executive and professional recruitment, and niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing. Some organizations use employer branding strategy and in-house recruitment instead of agencies. An organization’s human resources staff generally carries out recruitment-related functions.
The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, screening potential candidates using tests and/or interviews, selecting candidates based the the results of the tests and/or interviews, and on-boarding to ensure the candidate is able to fulfill their new role effectively. In the context of evolution, certain traits or alleles of genes segregating within a population may be subject to selection. Under selection, individuals with advantageous or “adaptive” traits tend to be more successful than their peers reproductively—meaning they contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation than others do.
When these traits have a genetic basis, selection can increase the prevalence of those traits, because offspring will inherit those traits from their parents. When selection is intense and persistent, adaptive traits become universal to the population or species, which may then be said to have evolved. Scientists who do experimental genetics employ artificial selection experiments that permit the survival of organisms with user-defined phenotypes. Artificial selection is widely used in the field of microbial genetics, especially molecular cloning.
Recruitment is the process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications, developing their interest in an organization (Mondy & Noe, 1993; Crawford, 2004). and encouraging them to apply for jobs within it During this process, efforts are made to inform the applicants fully about the selection criteria of the required competencies that will lead to effective performance, as well as career opportunities the organization can provide the employee.
Whether or not a particular job vacancy will be filled by someone from within, or outside, the organization depends on the organization’s human resource policies, the requirements of the job to be filled, the talent to be found and, often, the organizational politics surrounding the decision (Nankervis et al. , 2002). Selection is the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position (Mondy & Noe, 1993) based on conventional and non-conventional methods (Crawford, 2004).
Therefore, the effectiveness of recruitment has a significant impact on the efficiency of the selection process. The selection process should provide as much reliable and valid information as possible about applicants so that their qualifications may be carefully matched with the job requirements. While the selection process is usually the responsibility of the human resource director or similar professional, managerial and supervisory personnel in all the business units of an organization also have an important role in the selection process (Goldrick, 1997).
They need to be well versed in the conventional selection methods of psychological and aptitude testing as well as single-stage to multi-stage interviews. Further, essential experience with non-conventional selection should include graphology, group selection or assessment center and country house weekend techniques. When the final decision of hiring is in the hands of members of a selection committee, it is important that they understand both the objectives/policies relating to selection and the overall strategic direction of the organization.
Though there are many recruitment and selection processes used in both Australia and China, only their most salient features will be discussed in the current paper. It is not suggested that they are the only, or most appropriate, ways of proceeding; simply, that they are broad indicators of HR trends. Australian strategies usually are designed to integrate its multicultural workforce, and in China the opportunities are great, but they create HR challenges because when it comes to recruiting “China has its own particular rules of the road” (Overman, 2001, p. 1). According to Dr.
Chris Piotrowski (University of West Florida, USA) and Dr. Terry Armstrong (Georgetown University, USA) most of the companies use traditional recruitment and selection methods (e. g. , resume, reference checks), only 9. 3 % rely on online pre-employment screening tests (see Table I). However, 9 out of 10 firms favor online job boards and company websites. Another 21. 9 % of the companies are considering future use of online pre-employment screening as part of their selection process. Furthermore, 28. 5 % of the companies either screen or plan to screen for Honesty-Integrity while 21. % of the companies either assess or plan to assess for Violence-Potential. Interestingly, only 20% of the respondents include personality tests as part of the selection process, despite the attention to “Personality” factors in the human resource literature (Hough & Oswald, 2000; Roberts & Hogan, 2001; Thumin, 2002). Apparently, the use of online testing by major companies, both private and public, is presently in a state of metamorphosis. As the current findings indicate, about two-thirds of U. S. firms do not have plans to incorporate online pre-employment assessment in the near future.
Yet, the business literature has seen a high level of interest and actual implementation of Internet-based hiring practices (e. g. , Mooney, 2002). Perhaps, some firms rely on Internet-based approaches for pre-screening purposes or as a vehicle to narrow down a short list of final candidates. However, the legal pitfalls (e. g. , such as transparency, confidentiality, psychometric credibility,’ inappropriate queries) of online hiring approaches may be the major 492 NORTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY factor deterring companies from using data from online tests.
Moreover, Human Resource decision-makers might have concerns about the legitimacy of clinical personality tests or personally invasive queries (see Camara & Merenda, 2000; Vodanovich & Piotrowski, 2000; Wallace & Vodanovich,2004). In this regard, Naglieri et al. (2004) address a number of delicate issues, such as proper identification of an applicant, in addition to ethical and legal concerns that warrant consideration before implementing online testing. TABLE ONE Rank Order of Major Recruitment and Selection Techniques Utilized (N=151) |Yes (%) |No (%) | |Resume |148 |98 | |Application blanks |146 |97 | |Reference checks |146 |97 | |Newspaper/Magazines ads |145 |96 | |Company websites |134 |89 | |Online job board |133 |88 | |Skills testing |76 |50 | |Bio-data |38 |25 | |Personality testing |29 |19 | |Background checks |16 |11 | |Online pre-employment tests 14 |9 | |Jobs fairs |13 |9 | |Referral from current employees |10 |7 | |Jobs service centers |8 |5 | |Drug testing |7 |5 | According to Journal of Management Practice it was found that the questionnaire and interview questions were sufficient to obtain the information required to analyze the process of recruitment and selection within the organization. It has been found that the organization has a sound understanding of what processes need to be used in order to achieve effective recruitment and selection. In addition to this, several issues have been identified within the recruitment and selection process that need to be addressed by the organization.
The first issue identified is that the organization needs to address the way it communicates the request for vacant and new positions to the person responsible for recruitment. Second, the need has been detected for the organization to enlist the services of an employment agency for the recruitment of low skilled temporary staff. Thirdly, the need for the organization to widen the coverage area when advertising in the newspaper for positions vacant has been established. It has also been found that this approach should be used for the professional and managerial vacancies, with the goal of hitting the desired target market. Fourth, it has been established that the organization should advertise all positions internally, prior to searching outside the company for the most suitable applicant.
Fifth, it has been shown that the organization needs to change the current structure used in interviews for professional positions, from unstructured to structure to ensure that the right applicant is matched with the right job. Sixth, the need for the organization to change the seating arrangements in the interview room has been identified. This can be achieved by purchasing, when possible, some comfortable furniture to enhance the interview environment. Finally, the need for the organization to develop an orientation program to be implemented within the first week of an employee commencing employment has been established. By assessing the recruitment and selection strategy of the organization, the needs of the organization have been established and identified, therefore, satisfying the purpose of the report.
RECOMMENDATIONS • The organization develops a suitable formal written request such as a requisition form or memo. • The organization uses an employment agency for the recruitment of low skilled, temporary staff. • The organization advertises for medium to high skilled vacancy positions in the metropolitan daily newspaper. • The organization advertises all vacant positions internally in the first instance. • The organization uses structured interviews for all positions classed as medium to high skilled. • The organization obtains comfortable lounge-type seating and a coffee table to be used to conduct interviews in the designated interview room. The organization develops and implements an employee orientation program. • The organization ensures that the orientation program is carried out with new employees on their first day, where possible or, alternatively, in the first week. Discussion & Analysis By doing survey on different garments we have found their selection & recruitment practices. Almost all the garments use the same method of selecting & hiring people. As we have said earlier that we divided the total question into four parts. The findings and analysis is described below: Part –A Basic Questions The supervisors or managers identify Job opening in maximum cases.
Only few of the garments have specialized HR manager. Among the 10 surveys we have found that only one organization uses HR manager for job opening identification. Department heads request for hiring employees is accepted in all the organization. Because of they are identifying the job opening, for that their request is taken if they require additional employees. Third question was does they have any HR plans for recruiting and selecting employees? In this question only two of the 10 organizations follow HR plans. Rest of the organizations responses when problem occurs. The fifth & sixth question was do they accept child labor and is gender a vital role in the organization?
Almost every organization has answered no to child labor except one organizations answered depend on situation. So it is clear that child labor is not accepted here. One said depends because they think that in some cases they allow child but not as labors. In some official jobs they are assigned. On the other hand gender is not a vital role for 7 organizations out of 10. Although maximum workers are women and from their point of view they think that it is not male or female they consider. They just only consider that if a worker can do the job they are assigned for it. Only one said that yes because they differentiate jobs for women. Their entire worker working on production sector is female. This is the same reason that one organization said depends.
Sixth question was does the organization check employee’s background before selecting. In this question 7 organizations said yes they check and 3 organizations said depends on job position. None of the organization said no. It means everybody checks employee’s background before selecting. Our next question was does organizations check their employee’s medical conditions. Out of 10, 6 of the organizations said yes they check the fitness of employees. Rest of the 4 organizations said that medical test depends on job position. After that last two questions of part A was does the organization takes any test & shows realistic job preview to their probable employee’s.
Only two out of ten organizations said yes they take tests before selecting. Seven of them said depend and only one said no. As maximum employees are in bottom line so they doesn’t require any test before selecting. Maximum said depends because if they require top & mid level people then they may take various tests. On the other hand 4 organizations said that they show their employee’s the real job task before hiring. Five of them said depend and only one organization said no. While selecting workers they show the real task of the job. In some positions there is no need to show realistic job preview from their point of view. Part-B Top Management Our first question was their form of advertisement.
All the organizations said that for top management people they normally give vacancy adds in various newspapers. Five of them also added that they use online vacancy adds on various job sites. Second and third question was do they accept internal channels of recruitment and walk-ins and write-ins. Seven out of ten said that they accept internal channels of recruitment and three of them said it depends on job situation. Only one organization said they don’t allow any internal channel of recruitment. On the contrary four organizations answered that they accept walk-ins & write-ins. Three organizations said that they don’t allow or accept it and three of them said that it depends on situation.
Our fourth and fifth question was who takes the interview and what do they give more property during the interview. The board of directors takes interview in four organizations. Only two out of ten organizations said that the manager takes the interview. Rest of the four organizations replied that interview is taken on the combination of both managers and board of directors. On the other hand all the organizations search for experiences during the interview. Some of them said skills but in these kind of job positions experiences is more important. Sixth question was do they take any assessment test before selecting. Among them eight organizations said yes they take some tests and only two organizations said no. Here no means depends on the candidate.
Tests include IQ test, Decision making test, stress test and communication test. Almost all the organizations use all the tests. Some of the organization doesn’t take few tests because of the candidate qualifications. But overall through out the survey, all tests are taken before selecting. The last question was do they provide any training session to selected employees. Nine of the organization said yes they provide training. Among them three organizations said it depends on position and candidate’s situation. Middle Management Our first question was their form of advertisement. All the organizations said that for middle management people they normally give vacancy adds in various newspapers.
One of them also added that they use online vacancy adds on various job sites. Some also said that sometimes vacancies are advertised on various papers and other things. Second and third question was do they accept internal channels of recruitment and walk-ins and write-ins. Six out of ten said that they accept internal channels of recruitment and three of them said it depends on job situation. Only one organization said they don’t allow any internal channel of recruitment. On the contrary six organizations answered that they accept walk-ins & write-ins. Three organizations said that they don’t allow or accept it and three of them said that it depends on situation.
Our fourth and fifth question was who takes the interview and what do they give more property during the interview. The managers take interview in eight organizations. Only one out of ten organizations said that board of directors takes the interview. Rest of the four organizations replied that interview is taken on the combination of both managers and board of directors. On the other hand all the organizations search for experiences during the interview. Some of them said skills but in these kind of job positions experiences is more important. Sixth question was do they take any assessment test before selecting. Among them eight organizations said yes they take some tests and only two organizations said no. Here no means depends on the candidate.
Tests include IQ test, Decision making test, stress test and communication test. Almost all the organizations use all the tests. Some of the organization doesn’t take few tests because of the candidate qualifications. But overall through out the survey, all tests are taken before selecting. The last question was do they provide any training session to selected employees. Eight of the organization said yes they provide training. Between them two organizations said it depends on position and candidate’s situation. Bottom Line People Our first question was their form of advertisement. All the organizations said that for bottom line people they normally give vacancy adds in banners, posters and many more.
One of them also added that they some times go for newspaper but it is very rare. They normally make a banner and small posters and paste it various locations or in front of their factory. Second and third question was do they accept internal channels of recruitment and walk-ins and write-ins. Six out of ten said that they accept internal channels of recruitment and three of them said it depends on job situation. Only one organization said they don’t allow any internal channel of recruitment. On the contrary eight organizations answered that they accept walk-ins & write-ins. One organization said that they don’t allow or accept it and another one said that it depends on situation.
Our fourth and fifth question was who takes the interview and what do they look for during the interview. The managers take interview in two organizations. The supervisors take maximum numbers of interviews. In some cases the interviews are taken in a combined panel. Mainly they search for practical knowledge. Candidates who have practical skills and a little bit of knowledge then his/her job are confirmed. Experience is also a very important factor. Our next questions were do they describe the job description before selecting employees. Yes in all cases they describe the job description. What the employees have to do, how to do and what reward & benefits are provided is described. Based on answer, 50% said yes and 50% said depends on situation.
Another question was does employee’s are directed selected and if selected then his/her efficiency is tested or not. Employee position depends that if s/he will get the job instantly or not. Also every employee’s efficiency is tested. Eight out of two said yes they check efficiency and two of the organization said depends on situation. Now the last question of our survey was all the information’s are shared with employees before selecting employees. All organizations do the same things. They first takes the interview and after that they share some information about the trip. So these are all the findings that we have found after doing survey in 10 different organizations.
Based on their answer we have prepared this term paper. Recommendation As a group we have made survey and found lots of new things. We have found that maximum garments are following the same methods of recruitment and selection. It is totally different from the theories that we have learnt. By doing this survey we thought that some small things which is ignored in this process like, • Job description should be given for every post. This will allow employees to get a good idea about their work. • Most of the garments don’t have any HR managers. Also they don’t have any HR plan too. Supervisors or Managers identify doesn’t follow any HR plan too.
As a result sometimes it creates problem for organization. A manager will do his own job or search employees. • Each and every employee’s medical checkup should be done before selecting and hiring. As it requires both mental and physical skills & abilities so medical test and some stress tests should be taken. • In our country final selection is conducted by interview. Realistic job preview can also be considered in this sector. So as far of our concern these things are missed by the organizations. Conclusion In Bangladesh the garments sector is developing day by day. The recruitment & selection process is also changing and developing. We have conducted this survey from 10 different garments.
Almost all the garments use more or similar process. When they need people or employees they just give a simple add in front of the factory or just attach posters. This is sufficient for getting people because the availability of labor in the market. Employees are called and then take a simple interview and after that depending on the performance they make decision about hiring or selecting the employees. This is the common practices of recruitment and selection practices in Bangladesh. References 1. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIA AND CHINA: REWARDS FROM COMMON SENSE AND PLAIN DEALING. By Carolyn Dickie, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology.
Laurence Dickie, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology. 2. “Best practice recruitment and selection Tool kit”, Victoria The Place to Be / Department of Planning and Community Development Logo, Published November 2009. 3. “Human Resource Management”, 11th edition by Gary Dessler. 4. “Current Recruitment and Selection Practices: A National Survey of Fortune 1000 Firms”:Dr. Chris Piotrowski (University of West Florida, USA) and Dr. Terry Armstrong (Georgetown University, USA): 5. Journal of Management Practice: “RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES IN A SELECTEDORGANISATION” ———————– [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic]