Research 5 0 1 W SAbstractThe article discusses

Research PaperOn'”The Bayonne Bridge”NJ, United StatesConstruction Engineering- ICM 501 WSSubmitted To:.Prof. Dr. Linda ThomasT.A. Xi ChenStevens Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Construction Engineering and ManagementPrepared By:.Yogesh PatelCWID [email protected] | C M 5 0 1 W SContentsAbstract4Introduction 4History 4Problems Encountered 6Design 7Construction 8Traffic Conditions 10Project Teams and Partners 11Project Cost in 2017 11Conclusion 13Acknowledgement 14References 143 | C M 5 0 1 W SList of FiguresFig No. Name of FigurePage No.Fig. 1 First Concept of Bayonne Bridge5Fig. 2 Series of Reinforced Concrete Piers8Fig. 3 Construction of Arch Assembly9Fig. 4 Raising Roadway10Fig. 5 Scheduling work with Grant Bar Chart124 | C M 5 0 1 W SAbstractThe article discusses the facts about a landmark by land, sea and air, “The Bayonne Bridge”. TheBayonne bridge spanning the Kill Van Kull connecting Bayonne NJ with Staten Island NY City,is an arch bridge. The construction of bridge serves as main purpose to pass vehicular traffic fromStaten Island to reach Manhattan. In 1932 when Bayonne bridge’s construction completed, it hasoriginal roadway of 151 feet above mean high water level preclude 21st century new generationcontainer ship which are larger better for environment and more efficient, helps from passing underthe bridge to reach marine terminals. Starting in 2013, there has been an ongoing project to raisethe roadbed from its old height of 155 feet (47 m) to a new height of 215 feet (66 m) above meanhigh waters. It delivers elevated clearance for shipping to accommodate New Panamax ships. It isthe benchmark for engineers who are building a new bridge deck above the existing roadway,while ensuring limited disruption to traffic.Keywords: Bayonne Bridge, Arch BridgeIntroductionThe Bayonne Bridge opened to traffic on November 15, 1931. Spanning with 1,675 feet, theBayonne’s arch acquired as longest bridge in the world for 45 years. It accomplishes bothfunctional and beautiful aspects of structure.The Bayonne bridge was ultimate solution in the 20th century, With increased construction ofsuburban communities on the new jersey side. It was need for more connections to ease trafficflow on ferry services and existing bridges. It was opened three years after the Goethals Bridgeand Outer Bridge Crossing. It furnished the first direct highway connection between Staten Islandand Manhattan. The purpose of it was to reduce 18 minutes travel time for vehicles travelling fromManhattan, as they must take the ferry that previously connected New Jersey with Port Richmond.Formerly, it was designed to build as straight line between two points, preferably at right anglesto the two shores. But the ferry service from Bayonne to Port Richmond was angled. So, it wasdesigned to cross the Kill Van Kull at a 58 degree right angle to the shoreline. Finally, it waschosen to align with the local street networks on both sides of the waterway.HistoryA historic civil engineering landmark designed by Othmar H. Ammann, is the fifth longest steelarch bridge in the world, and was the longest in the world at the time of its completion.Construction began in September 1928 and was completed in 1931.In the early age of the 20th century, people were more concerned and obligate for a bridge linkingStaten Island with the Bayonne Peninsula. The primary purpose of the Kill van Kull, joins NewYork Harbor with Newark Bay, connects between the north shore of Staten Island and the BayonnePeninsula of the southern tip. At the time of construction, the expectation of planners of theBayonne bridge would follow route of the ferry. It’s all under the consideration of the construction5 | C M 5 0 1 W Sof the bridge is come up with the very few amounts of destruction to taxable property at adjacentsite area.Fig. 1 First Concept of Bayonne BridgeFor the first-time engineers and architects considered the main span of 1,500 feet as a suitableoption before the construction begin for the Bayonne bridge. The preliminary concept behind thatis to build designs as a cantilever bridge or a suspension bridge. After careful analysis, they realizepromptly that the cantilever design construction required the maximum amount of steel which istoo costly as well as nonpractical and unattractive. Similarly, in the consideration of suspensionbridge design, as they discovered requirement of the bedrock for the anchorages for deep,expensive excavations. It has diagonal tower bracing and deck stiffening trusses, so they revokedthe design. Additionally, the lodging of two proposed rail line would increase the cost.Finally, after doing all surveys they gone for the construction of the steel-arch design planned byOthmar Ammann who is expert in bridge design and chief engineer at the Port Authority. Hefinalized arch design as most practical for this route. Although the construction cost of arch spanwas estimated at one-half million dollars higher than the cost of the suspension span. Arch designallows as it carries the proposed rail lines.6 | C M 5 0 1 W SProblems EncounteredWhen the Bayonne Bridge opened, it had ample clearance for the tallest freight vessels, which atthe time measured 100 feet to the top of the mast. In current scenario, the tallest vessels requiredclearance measuring up to 175 feet (53m) high. Because there is not enough vertical clearance,many ships voyage to the Kill van Kull must pass under the bridge at very low tide situation. Theclearance above the Kill Van Kull between 151 to 156 feet (46–48 m) is depending on tide meantthat is having in some contemporary ships, which could reach 175 feet (53 m) above the waterline,had to follow certain concern system to pass through like to fold down antenna masts, or to takeon ballast, or wait for low tide.The bridge is too low for the larger ships reaching at East Coast coming from Asia to pass underit, because of the Panama Canal expansion on the way to and from Newark Bay. The new 21stcentury larger “New Panamax” ships made it more worse. To solve the air draft problem, in August2009, the Port Authority started a planning analysis. If they ignore the problem, meanwhile theycould have lost significant business opportunity compared to other east coast ports such asCharleston, South CarolinaSo, officials decided either raising the roadway or replacing the Bayonne Bridge, because offearful of losing port business to other East Coast ports.Raising Existing Span:Under this consideration, they planned to remove existing roadway and extended bridge piershigher. With the help of existing structural steel above Kill van Kull, they initiate a new four-laneroadway with having new suspension cables from previous roadway position. The approximateconstruction cost for this design would be 500 million dollars, has been knocked as appearance ofthe existing bridge.Bridge Replacement:Under this consideration, they planned to build a new bridge or tunnel. The primary thoughts forthis design would likely to be cable-stay design, having four lanes of vehicular traffic and possibleconsideration of two tracks for a future Hudson-Bergen light rail. They also planned for verticalclearance of at least 200 feet for new bridge design, which was not suitable option at that timebecause of expensiveness as approximately $1 billion US Dollars.After analyzing both option, the Port Authority realize that either plan they would take, it wouldtake at least 3(three) years to complete upon final approval by Federal and state governments.Also, they must have closed the Bayonne Bridge navigation for one month under constructionconditions.7 | C M 5 0 1 W SDesignThe Bayonne Bridge represented an advance of arch bridges to be built to date due to its magnitudeand calculations of secondary stresses. This would help to established construction of largestructure. For the design of the structure, various construction materials including manganese steelwere tested through compression test and stress measurement by extensometer on the realstructure. It was used to calculate compressive strength of wide web plates for Bayonne bridgeconstruction.In the construction process for the first time in history, main arch ribs and rivets made bymanganese steel. Similarly, false work for construction of arch span was used. The reason behindusing manganese steel was due to its high strength, comparable to nickel steel and with cheaperprice. It was used as main arch ribs and 3 cm rivets.Due to the economic constraint, they chosen falsework method for erection over cantilever.Falsework validated as better option then cantilever since the rivers solid rock bottom providedsecure foundation and feasibility of making it. It was also used later in the bridge construction.The Kill Van Kull is one of busiest channel in the world, to preclude blockage they establishedtemporary jack to support sections of the bridge’s arch. The hyperbolic curve formed by 40 trussesthat were prefabricated off-site and lifted into place. “Cass Gilbert”- Consulting architect chosenthe abutment to be encased with ornamental stone work at each end of arch. Exposed steelworkwas chosen in lieu of the ornamental stonework on both bridges as a cost-cutting measure takenduring the Great Depression. To reach the suspended roadway deck under the central arch, morethan 5,000 feet (1,524 m) of approach viaducts on concrete piers were constructed in PortRichmond and Bayonne.The new design features of safety and design improvements: wider lanes, shoulders, a mediandivider, and the potential for future transit options. The Bayonne bridge eventual design called aslight-footed arch that climb 266 feet (81m) above the Kill Van Kull. It supported road bed of 511mwithout intermediary piers, although the roadway to rise up to the height of the arch with twoviaducts at either end of main span. The Bayonne viaduct was 3,010 feet (920 m) long and the PortRichmond viaduct was 2,010 feet (610 m) long, and it was supported by tall piers that ranged from20 feet to 110 feet. The total length of the bridge is 5,780 feet (1,760 m), which is having midspanclearance above the water of 150 feet to pass through the tallest vessel of United States Navyat the time. The arch constructed with 40 linear segments, looked like in shape of parabola. Thesimilarity of structural design for the steel arch is influenced by the Hell Gate Bridge designed byAmmann’s mentor, Gustav Lindenthal.8 | C M 5 0 1 W SConstructionGround was broken for the Bayonne Bridge on September 1, 1928. For construction of perfectparabolic arch, the span contained with spandrel-braced trussed arch in its bottom chords and twohinged. The manganese-steel chords used as the span’s primary structural members, carry most ofthe dead load and uniform live load, which is then transferred to the concrete abutments. The webmember and top chords for the span are stressed by live loads and temperature.For construction of arch trusses, it designed as 67 feet and 6-inch-deep at the abutments, but tapergradually toward mid-span to depth of 37 feet 6 inch- which run parallel to the outside of thesuspended roadway. At mid span, the chords soar 266 feet above Kill Van Kull. According toAmmann, for its pleasing appearance, the general outline of arch preserved with height decreasingfrom the center toward the ends.Fig. 2 Series of Reinforced Concrete PiersThe construction activity was done with commissioning as the arch was contained of 40 connectedtruss segments and each of them fabricated off-site. The Bayonne Bridge was constructed by acombination of cantilever and falsework methods, rather than using scaffolding method whichmost free-standing in arch bridges. They were used very few bents and a traveling crane toassemble the bridge, because of keeping the Kill van Kull open always as an important naval andshipping route.As building an ideal foundation, solid rock from NJ Palisades continues along the Bayonne. Tosupport the transfer the bridge’s load from lower chords, abutment was constructed, under KillVan Kull and onto Staten island. Due to the fiscal restraints of the Great Depression, it wasoriginally designed for encasement in ornamental stonework, as their abutments were left withsteelwork exposed (The George Washington Bridge did not have granite facing as originallyplanned. In both cases, the lack of granite facing arguably adds to the purity of the steel structure.9 | C M 5 0 1 W SFig. 3 Construction of Arch AssemblyOnce the construction of arches was established, work progressed on constructing the bridge’sroadway and approaches. The bridge’s suspended deck commenced with series of network forperpendicular beams, girders and stringers support. For accommodation of four lanes of vehiculartraffic, sections of the roadway deck were constructed fabricated off-site, and transported by bargeand hoisted into place. For primary roadway deck, pedestrian walkway was cantilevered.To reach a mid-span point of roadway deck 150 feet over the Kill van Kull, long approachesclimbing with a 4% grade were built on either side of the main arch. To support a steel-plate andconcrete roadway, they were build reinforced concrete piers ranging in height from 20 feet to 110feet.The Bayonne Bridge opened on November 15, 1931 with total cost of $13 million, it had becomethe longest steel-arch bridge in the world, beating the Australia’s Sydney Harbor Bridge. By seeingits roadway, one can observe a network of steel lace in the 325-foot-high arch. These designsearned the honor of “Most Beautiful Structure of Steel of 1931” accolades from the AmericanInstitute of Steel Construction.The Bayonne Bridge has carried the Route 440 designation between New York and New Jersey,Since 1952. It acquire the title as the world’s longest steel-arch span until 1978, when the NewRiver Gorge Bridge, with its 1,700-foot center span, opened in Fayetteville, West Virginia. Eventoday, the Bayonne Bridge has the fifth-longest steel arch span in the world.10 | C M 5 0 1 W SBayonne Bridge Navigational Clearance Project Construction UpdateConstruction activity has begun on the Bayonne Bridge “Raise the Roadway” project that willallow us to welcome larger, more efficient vessels to our region’s ports, while supporting andmaintaining vital job growth.The new roadway opened to vehicular traffic at 5 a.m. on February 20, 2017, with two travel lanes,one in each direction. Travelers can still use the bridge, even while the permanent southboundroadway is being completed, and the lower span underneath is dismantled.Fig. 4 Raising RoadwayNew roadway construction included replacing 152 steel cables, installing new floor beams, girders,and other support structures, as well as pouring 2,500 cubic yards of concrete and fortifying theiconic bridge’s steel arch. In total, the completed roadway is the result of over three years ofconstruction by more than 400 workers, including contractors and Port Authority oversightpersonnel.The new Bayonne Bridge roadway stands 215 feet above the mean high water of the Kill Van Kull,64 feet higher than the lower span. The complete removal of the lower roadway later this year willprovide the necessary room for some of the largest neo-Panamax cargo vessels to reach PortNewark, Elizabeth-Port Authority Marine Terminal, and Howland Hook Marine Terminal.Traffic ConditionsThe Bayonne Bridge officially opened to the public the following morning on November 15th,carrying a total of 17,019 cars and 6,933 pedestrians.On February 20, 2017, the Bayonne Bridge began a Cashless Toll Collection operation and nolonger accepts cash toll payments. The toll booths have been replaced with overhead equipmentthat instantly reads a vehicle’s E-ZPass tag. They develop new technology as a photograph will betaken of its license plate and a toll bill will be mailed to the registered owner of the vehicle,although vehicle does not have an E-ZPass tag.11 | C M 5 0 1 W SProject Teams and Partners? The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey? Bayonne Chamber of Commerce? SI Chamber of Commerce? Hudson County Chamber of Commerce? State of New Jersey? State of New York? City of Bayonne, New Jersey? Bayonne Historical Society? Borough of Staten Island? Staten Island Historical Society? Outer-bridge Crossing? Goethals Bridge? Port Authority Port DepartmentThe Bayonne Bridge Navigational Clearance Project is led by the Port Authority’s Office of MajorCapital Projects and the Engineering and Tunnels, Bridges & Terminals departments. Thecontractors on the project are Skanska Koch and Kiewit Corporation.Project Cost in 2017Construction of the Bayonne Bridge began in September 1928. The estimated date of completionwas early 1932. The credit goes towards the Construction team, because of thoughtful planning,careful management, and ingenious construction technology, the $13-million bridge wascompleted in November 1931—several months ahead of schedule, and $3 million under budget.From the current scenario, the project cost ended up in 2017 would be equivalent to $187,000,000,as it ended up with $13 million dollars in 1932. it was supposed to be open in early 1932 and wassupposed to cost $16 million (equivalent to $229,000,000 in 2017.Hereby, Fig. 5 shows the estimating of total number of days activity, and scheduling of it with helpof Grant bar Chart.12 | C M 5 0 1 W STask / Activity Start Date End Date Duration / DaysClear site 1-Sep-28 15-Sep-28 14Survey & layout 16-Sep-28 25-Sep-28 9Construct material storage 20-Sep-28 23-Sep-28 3Construction of primary utility 20-Sep-28 22-Sep-28 2Rough grade 25-Sep-28 10-Oct-28 15Earthwork 10-Oct-28 12-Dec-28 63Foundation 12-Dec-28 23-May-29 162Abutments 23-May-29 17-Aug-29 86Piers/column 17-Aug-29 8-Mar-30 203Erect steel 8-Mar-30 26-Jul-30 140Bolt up steel 26-Jul-30 14-Nov-30 111Erect bar joints 14-Nov-30 16-Feb-31 94Construct span 16-Feb-31 28-May-31 101Construction of pavement 28-May-31 3-Oct-31 128Access roads 3-Oct-31 28-Oct-31 25Area lighting work 28-Oct-31 10-Nov-31 13Finishing work 10-Nov-31 15-Nov-31 5Total 1174Fig. 5 Scheduling work with Grant Bar Chart1-Sep-2810-Dec-28 20-Mar-2928-Jun-296-Oct-2914-Jan-3024-Apr-302-Aug-3100-Nov-3108-Feb-3219-May-316-Sep-3115-Dec-3214-Mar-32clear sitesurvey & layoutconstruct material storageconstruction of primary utilityrough gradeearthworkfoundationabutmentspiers/columnErect steelBolt up steelErect bar jointsconstruct spanconstruction of pavementAcess roadsarea lighting workfinishing work13 | C M 5 0 1 W SConclusionThe Bayonne Bridge was successfully constructed in 1931, after overcoming all obstacles.Because of the project, the Bayonne bridge project would support nearly 2,800 jobs and $240–380million in wages throughout the construction industry, as well as $1.6 billion of economic activity.According to the Port Authority, the “Raise the Roadway” project will have many benefits, thefirst being that it would allow larger, more environmentally friendly ships to pass through the port.The design also allows for future transit service such as light rail, and having facility of bikewayand walk way, with access ramp to replace stairs.The CoE estimated that raising the Bayonne Bridge would produce a $3.3 billion national benefit,noting that 12% of all US international containers pass under the bridge, that the port indirectlycreates 269,900 jobs, and that port activity generates $11 billion in annual national wages. TheBayonne bridge project would permit 12,000-container ships to pass under the bridge. Overall, itis a structure whose sweeping arch soars above the low-lying landscape and water ways of theregion, making it a cherished landmark for millions of people who travel through land, sea and air.14 | C M 5 0 1 W SAcknowledgementI would like to thank Prof. Dr. Linda Thomas and teaching assistant Xi Chen for their help andguidance regarding this project work and besides that I would heartily appreciate all those peoplewho have helped me directly or indirectly making this project a success.References1.