Solid environment, at the dumping site without

waste dumping system in the city is an open dumping system. As a result there
are environmental and social problems resulted from the dumping site. Several
of the sources of solid wastes are from household, market, agriculture and commercial
area and putted in an open dumping site, which may contain the components of
leachable toxic that are hazardous to the human health and to the environment,
at the dumping site without any separation and treatment. Moreover, the dumping
site is very close to the main road, and it has a low distance to Tnjaro river
and surrounded by residential houses hence resulted in societal problems like
health danger and environmental problems.

In view
of the above, this study looks to adopt the best methodology for the selection
for landfill sites within the study area, as well as taking into considering
the natural, artificial factors and environmental factors. Using the results of
previous and present work, the following conclusions can be stated:

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1. Open
dumping of waste leads to many environmental problems, including surface and ground
water contamination, rodent, insect and disease infestation and others. Solid waste
is disposed of on the daily basis in Sulaymaniyah city by burning. This leads to
many population health problem in the city and villages near them.

2. The
value of solid waste generation rate 0.794 kg/ (capita· day) in 2016 based on
information of Sulaymaniyah Directory of Municipality with expected increment
rate in generation rate of (1.3) kg/ (capita· day) per year.

3. In
Sulaymaniyah city, the generation rate values in 2016 were (0.8065 and 0.86)
kg/ (capita· day) based on the results from the methods (1 and 2) respectively.

4. Generation
rate of solid waste Comparison with other studies puts Sulaymaniyah city as a
middle-income city.

5. Based
on expected increment rate in generation rate of (1.3) kg/ (capita· day) per
year, the value of generation rate in 2032 will be (1.057) kg/ (capita. day) in
Sulaymaniyah city respectively.

Annual quantities of solid waste generated in Sulaymaniyah city was 230,186
tonnes respectively when inhabitants of Sulaymaniyah city was 723,898
inhabitants in 2017 correspondingly. With the population growing rate of 2.99%,
the total population in Sulaymaniyah city will reach to 1,126,168 inhabitants
in 2032. Table 5.1 shows the expected waste to be produced in 2032 and the
cumulative quantity of solid waste for the period 2020- 2032 in the methods first
and second correspondingly.

5.1: The waste generated in 2032 and the cumulative quantity of municipality solid
waste generated for the years 2020-2032 in the first and second method

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