STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH OF 10TH CLASSSTUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR ACADEMICACHIEVEMENT AND SELF-ESTEEM A Synopsis SUBMITTED TO INDIRAGANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY for Partial Fulfillment of reqirements forThe Degree ofMASTER DEGREE PROGRAMME IN PSYCHOLOGY(MAPC) Supervisor Submitted byDr. Seema Bajaj Pawanpreet kaurAcademic Councilor EnrollmentNo.
161160372 IGNOUSTUDY CENTRE: 2206GURUNANAK GIRLS COLLEGE,MODEL TOWN ,LUDHIANA STUDY OF MENTAL HEALTH P OF 10THCLASS STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS AND SELF ESTEEM 1.1 MENTAL HEALTH INTRODUCTION: Mental health is a global term ,which refers to that conditioning of anindividual which results from the normal organization and functioning of hismind . The role of mental health in human life is very important as it playsits role not only in the lives of individual , but also in the life ofsocieties .The term mental health represents a variety of human aspirationrehabilitations of mentally disturbed, preventions of mental health ,reductionof tension in a conflict ladder world and attainment of a state of well beingin which the individual function at a level consistent with his mental andphysical potentials MEANING: Generally the word ‘Health’ is used for denoting physical health of anindividual. This is because up to recent past, the concept of mental health wasnot even thought of. The concept of mental health has been evolved due toincrease in the knowledge of human psychology. Mental health, therefore is newconcept which means sound health and healthy mind. A sound mental health isvery important aspect of personality .
A child remains in the school for 6-7hours away from home So, facilitating school environment will help the child inproper development of personality .Hence we assume that school environment mayaffect the mental health of child DEFINITIONS · According to World Health OrganizationMental health is defined as a state of wellbeing in which every individual realizes his or her potential , can cope withthe normal stresses of life , can work productivity and fruitfully and is ableto make a contribute to his or her community. · According to WhiteheadMental health appears as an attribute of amature human personality and as asocial value to be guarded and maintainedthrough purposeful disordered and conflicts. · According to Britanica Mental health the broader sense suggests degreeof happiness and satisfactory under conditions that warrant such a state ofmind and capacity for making satisfactory personal and social relationships. FACTORSOF MENTAL HEALTH : 1.
HEREDITARYFACTORS: Theses includes the traits of personality ,characteristics’ ,disease and so on.2. PHYSICALFACTORS: Diseases ,injuries and other physical problemsoften contribute to poor health and some time mental illness.
3. SOCIALFACTORS: Millions ofindividuals will be affected by poor mental health at some time during theirlives and through anyone can experience these problems from certain backgroundsand social situations who are at a significantly greater risk.4. SATISFACTIONOF BASIC NEEDS : Theselead to physical health ,social well being ,and other basic things related totheir own. 1.
2ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT INTRODUCTION: Education plays a paramount and significantrole in building up society in modern age a society cannot achieve the aims ofeconomic the aims of economic growth and development that are the pillars of acount .Academic achievement is one of the most important goals of education.The success of a failure of a student of failure of a student in terms ofacademic achievement .
Academic achievement is a unique, prime and perennial responsibility of a schoolor any other educational institution established by the society to promote awholesome academic growth and development of a child .It is common observationthat success in the academic serve as an emotional tonic and any damage done toa child in the home or neighborhood may be partially repaired by the success inschool .High achievement in school builds self esteem and self confidence . MEANING:Theterm academic achievement has been derived from the word ‘academy ‘. Themeaning of the term ‘academy’ is a school where special types of instructionsare imparted . Academic achievement is the core of term educational growth andperhaps none would deny the importance of academic achievement in child’s life. Achievement is thus in broader sense is customary for schools and colleges tobe concerned to a greaterextentwith the development of knowledge understanding and acquisition of skillsAcademicachievement generally refers to thescores obtained in the annual examination or refers to the degree or level orsuccess or proficiency attained in same specific area concerning scholastic aracademic work .It refers to the knowledge obtained and skills developed indifferent subjects during the course of an academic year .
The students areprovided feedback and motivation to work hard .Despite varied statements aboutthe aims of education ,the academic achievement of a pupil continues to be aprimary concern and the most important goal of education . Definitions:Ø According to L.R .Hawes’s ConciseDictionary of education:The word ´academic ´means referring to theinstitutional system of formal education within a school ,college oruniversity, theoretical and not a practical importance ,a scholarly person whoworks in higher education . Ø According to Hawes and Hawes: Defined achievement as successful accomplishment orperformance in a particular subject ,area or course ,usually by reasons ofskills , hardwork and intrest ,typically summarized in various types of grades,marks scores or descriptive commentary . Ø According to Crow and Crow:Academic achievement is the extent to which learneris profiting from instruction in given area of learning .
1.3 SELF ESTEEM: INTRODUCTION: Selfesteem reflects a person´s overall subjective emotional evaluation of his orher worth .It is a judgement of oneselfas well as an attitude toward the self .Self esteem encompasses beliefs aboutoneself . Self esteem is attractive as a social psychological construct becauseresearchers have conceptualized. Its as an influential predictor of certainoutcomes such as academic achievement ,happiness , satisfaction in marriage andrelationships and criminal behavior .
self esteem may make people convinced theydeserve happiness .Understanding this is fundamental ,and universallybeneficial ,since the development of positive self esteem increases thecapacity to treat other people with respect ,benevolence and goodwill ,thus favouringrich interpersonal relationships and avoiding destructive ones . MEANING: Selfesteem is not something we are born with or without ,rather it largely an acquired trait we can improve because self esteem resides largely withinourselves ultimately we have the power to change it .Although , people´sreaction may influence our self esteem through both and social comparison weare the final authority on our self worth . DEFINITON :Ø According to Blascovich and TomakaSelf esteem is a widely used concept both in popularlanguage and in psychology .it refers to an individual´s sense of his or hervalue or worth ,or the extent to which a person value ,approves of, appreciatesprizes or likes him or herself.
TYPES OF SELF ESTEEM : 1.Low Self Esteem : A person who has a poor belief inboth their sef worth and competence .They basically have constant feelings ofinsecurity ,are very cautious ,timid, have poor initiative , avoid conflict andsuffer with a lot of anxiety and depression.2 .High self esteem : Aperson who has good belief in their competence and worth .They generally feelgood about themselves ,are open to new experience, feel accepted ,and arepleasant to be around.
They have high competencies level which means they havethe skill set to succeed in life and show good mental health3. Worthiness based self esteem: The individualswho fit into this quadrant base their self esteem on how others view them andhow they view themselves .They make up for their perceived lack of competenceby denying shortcomings ,minimizing failures and surrounding themselves withpeople who accept them .
4 .Competence based self esteem :Theseindividuals measure how they feel about themselves by their achievements andsuccesses .They compensate for their lack of worth by exaggerating theimportance of their successes. 1.4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:· Studiesrelated with mental health among adolescents : ü Miech et. al .
(2005)studied “The educational disparities caused by mental health persist throughlife “.This longitudinal study assessed mental health status of children(13-18years ). The findings concluded that those who did not complete highschool were more likely to have symptoms of mental illness at both points intime compared to those who did complete high school. ü Wood (2006) Conducted descriptive studyon Self disclosure as related to mental health and found that thereis no significant relationship between self disclosure and mental health ofadolescents. ü Otto wahl et. al.
(2009) investigatedmiddle school students to assess the knowledge and attitudes about mental health .Self report questionnaire were usedin pilot study to create an assessmenttool for juvenile samples .The findings were the students knowledge about mentalhealth was inconsistent and the attitudes was positive but substantial no. ofstudents had less favorable attitudes . ü Bharath k. (2011) conducted studyon the assessment of mental health of Indian adolescents studying in urbanschools by using descriptive design .
Sampleof 500 adoloscents were used in this study SDQ(strengthsand difficulties questionnaire ) , which is user friendly screeningquestionnaire which can be use to assessbehavioural problems and mental health. The result showedthat mental health problems are common among the school adolescents . ü STUDIES RELATED TO ACADEMICACHIEVEMENT: ü Kaisnath (2003) Studied the interactiveeffect of mental health and socio economic status on academic achievement withthe objective to find out the difference among students who were well adjusted and mal adjusted to schoolenvironment differ in their academic achievement by taking the sample of 200 students (102 boys and 98 girls) with theage range of 15 to 19 years and found that mental health has significantdeterminant effect of achievement in school subjects , students having bettersocial and emotional adjustment attained good academic scores .ü Thakkar (2007) studiedacademic achievement ,adjustment and study habit of rural and urban studentsfound that there was no significant relationship in academic achievement andstudy habits for rural and urban students ;therewas positive significant reference between rural and urban students inadjustment ,area of home ,family ,emotional and total but in the area of socialand emotional adjustment the difference was not significant; there was nosignificant correlation between academic achievement and adjustment among ruraland urban locality ; a positive significant difference between low and highachieving groups . Adjustment pattern showed that urban boys slightly betterthan in rural counterparts in the area of home , family personal ,emotional andhealth achievementü Asarnow,et .al (2011) investigated”depression and academic achievement” and examined the unique association ofdepression and role impairment among adolescents in primary care. The sampleincluded a large about 350 primary care patients aged 13-19 drawn from sixsites included public health ,managed care and academic health center clinics.
The youth self report questionnaire assessed the relation between depression and academicperformance. v STUDIES RELAT ED TO SELF ESTEEM: ü Ciarrochi et al .(2007) studied the impact ofhope ,self esteem and attributional style on adolescents school grades andemotional well being among 784 high school students from new south vales inAustralia . The results revealed that hope was predictor of positive effect ,negative attributional style had best predictor of increases hostility and fear,self esteem was the best predictor of increases in sadness.
ü Cornor et .al. (2008) investigated Selfesteem in relations to age ,gender ,ethnicity and risk behavior of non medical stream students, 149 African American andlatino students were participated from non stream school. The results indicatedthat Self esteem as an important component of adolescents , healthy developmentand successful transition to adulthood .It also revealed that high Self Esteemassociated with an overall sense of well being during adolescence ,but low selfesteem had been related to risk behaviour and negative development outcomes .
ü Malekiha et. al (2012) investigated personalityand Self esteem as predictor of happiness and depression among 110 malestudents of high school in Iran. The results indicated thatbothself esteem and personality weresignificantly correlated with happiness and depression. v STUDIES RELATED TO MENTAL HEALTH OFADOLSCENCE IN RELATION TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND SELF ESTEEM: ü Lewis (2005) investigatedmultivariate analysis of variables associated with academic success with acollege environment and found that mental health was most significantly relatedto academic achievement.ü Gerard ,J.M (2009) foundcomparative relationship between mental health of young adolescence in case ofacademic achievement and self esteem . Quantitative and Qualitative datafrom which 86 north America and 86British adolescents were utilized to examinethe relationship .
Qualitative results demonstrated that low self esteem wasrelated to low academic achievement and deteriorate the mental status ofadolescence .ü Akinleke (2013) studied therelationship between test anxiety ,Self esteem and academic performance amongtwo hundred and fifty(250) students of federal polytechnic Ilaro in Nigeria.The results indicated that there was positive relationship between Self Esteemand academic performance .
The low self esteem leads to decrease academicperformance . 1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The problem under investigation is statedas: “Study of mental health of 10th classstudents in relation to their academic achievement and self esteem”1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY :Ø Tostudy mental health of 10th class students Ø To study academic achievement among 10thclass studentsØ To study self esteem among 10thclass studentsØ To study the difference between mentalhealth of boys and girlsØ To study the difference between selfesteem of boys and girlsØ Tostudy the difference between mental health and self esteem among boys andgirls. 1.
7 HYPOTHESES: 1. There will be asignificant relationship between mental health and academic achievement of 10th classstudents . 2. There will be a significant relationship between mental health andself esteem of 10th class students . 3. There will be a significantdifference in mental health of male and female students of 10th class.
4. There will be a significant difference in self esteem of male andfemale students of 10th class . 1.8 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: Due to scarcity of timethe study has following delimitations :1.
The study is delimited only on the students of district shri muktsar sahib .2. The study is restricted to 10th classstudents .
3. The study is delimited only on thesamples of 200 students . 1.9METHODOLOGY :§ Aim of the study:The aim of the study is to assess the mental healthof 10th class students in relation to their academic achievement and self esteem.§ Sample size:Data will be collected only on 200 participants fromMuktsar district .From which 100 will be males and 100 will be females.
Tool used1. MentalHealth Battery by Singh and Gupta (2005).Description:Ithas 130 items belonging to six dimensions of mental heath. Emotional stability,over all adjustment , autonomy , security-insecurity ,self concept and intelligence Reliability: The reliability of theinventory was determined by split half method using odd even procedure . Theresults reveals that there exists a significant and positive correlation of various dimensions of mental health i.eemotional stability (r=.12) ,overall adjustment (r=.
10) ,autonomy (r=.10) ,selfconcept (r =.12) ,and intelligence (r =.28) and shows no significantcorrelation .Validity: Construct validity of the inventory is determined byfinding coefficient of correlation between scores on mental health inventoryand general health questionnaire . Itwas found to be .
54 Norms: The normative sampleincluded 200 sample from different private schools of muktsardistrict . The group was comprised of 58% girls and 42% boys .The mean age vary between 17- 19 years.
2. Academicachievement:Academic achievement will beassessed on the basis of final examination of 9th class.3.SELF ESTEEM INVENTORY BY COOPERSMITH(1981):DESCRIPTION: The self esteem Inventory (coopersmith ,1981) was used to measure selfesteem of school students .it was usedto measure evolution attitudes towards the self in social ,academic, family,andpersonal area of experience which indicate the extent to which a person believeshim/herself competent , successful,significant and worthy .
The items were scored positively as well asnegatively seperately.Reliability: The adult form of theself esteem Inventory has been designed to be used with persons aged sixteenand above .The conbach’s alpha reliability coefficients have been reported torange from .
78 to .85 for different groups and in terms of age sample, it was .80for the younger ones and .81 for elder ones , thereby showing internal consistencyof the inventorValidity:The construct validity of the inventoryalong with concurrent and factorial validity has been established .SCORING: The inventory consistsof 25 traits –descriptive items to whichthe subjects responds by checking either “likes me” or “unlike me” .
Items arescored 1 (one) for every answer that is affarrmith endorses and elements ofself esteem e.g saying positive thingsabout oneself and 0 (zero)for every answer in the other direction. The selfesteem score is calculated by scoring positive items “correct” if they havebeen answered “like me ” and negative items “correct ” if they answered “unlikeme” . Higher scores indicate high self esteem and low score indicate low self esteem. 1.9 STATISTICAL COMPUTATION:Ø Mean, Standard deviation and standard error of mean. Ø Ttest will be used to see the significant difference between the means Ø Pearson’sproduct moment correlation will be used to see the relationship between thevariablesØ Datawill be represented graphically wherever and whenever required .
2.0 REFFERENCES:§ Akinleke ,w.olaitan (2013) AnInvestigation of the Relationship between Anxiety ,Self esteem and Academicperformance Among polytechnic Students in Nigeria . International Journal of computer Applications ,57(1),47-50 .
§ Asarnow ,J.R ,Jaycox ,L.H .,Duan.
N,Laborde ,A.P., Rea,M.M,et al(2005) examined therelationship between Depression and Academic achievement .37(6) 477-83.§ Bharath k (2011) assessmentof mental health of Indian adolescents studying in urban schools ,pg276-98.
§ Ciarrochi ,J.,Heaven ,PalrichC.L,and Davies ,F.(2007) The impact of hope ,self esteem andattributional style of adolescents ,school grades and emotional well being .
Alonitudinal study : Journal of researchin personality,41(6),1161-78 .§ Cornor , J.M ,Poyrazie ,S.
ferrer,W.L, and Grahame ,K.(2008) , The Relation of age,gender ,ethnicity and risk behavior to self esteem among students in nonmainstream school.
Adolosecence SanDiego ,39,155-159 .§ Gerard J.M (2009) Toassess the relationship between mental health of young adolescents in relationto academic progress and self esteem , InetrnationalJournal of personality and social psychology .30,1541-47.§ Kaisnath (2013) Studied the interactive effect of mentalhealth and socioeconomic status on academic achievement 14,120-127.§ Kaur Inderjeet (2006) Descripted study on self disclosure as relatedto mental health Mathen ,M.ed Dissitation ,Punjab .§ Lewis ,B.
(2005) Mentalhygiene in public health .MccGraw Hill, p.68 .§ Malekiha ,M. Abedi ,Mohammad R.
,andBaghban ,Iran (2012) Personality ,Self esteem predictors ofhappiness and depression among high school students in Iran .journal-archieves ,3(10) 569-580.§ Miech ,R.A Eaton,W.W and Brenan k (2005) Mentalhealth disparities across education and sex: A Prospectives analysis examininghow they persist over the life course Journalof Gerentology series B . psychogical and social sciences (60) 93-98 .
§ Otto Wahl ,Phd ,Janet susin MA ,et al (2009) Asurvey conducted on middle schoolstudents to assess the knoeledge of mental health ,psychoinfo.16(3) pg 244-47 .§ Thakkar (2007) Studiedacademic achievement ,adjustment and urban school going adolescents ,Journal of school health 702-WEBSITESv http://www. Mental health.
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gov/ency/article /003213 (self esteem)v http://www.webster. Dictionary .com /academic achievementv http://www.your dictionary .com /mentalfitness/mental health /definition