Table 1: Cloud computing
versus Fog computing in IoT
There are huge Data and applications are processed in a cloud, which
is time consuming task for large volume of data in IoT 1.
Rather than presenting and working from centralized cloud, fog
operates on network edge. so it consumes less time in IoT 1
There is a Problem of bandwidth in IoT, as result of sending every bit
of data over cloud channels is a tedious task1.
Less demand for band width, as every bit of data’s where aggregated at
certain access points instead of sending over cloud channels1.
It was a slow response time and scalability problems as a result of
depending servers that are located at remote places2.
By setting small servers called edge servers in visibility of users,
it is possible for a fog computing platform to avoid response time and
The IoT interconnecting millions and billions or trillions of
connections with sensors or large volume of data through the internet. In this
scenario the IoT layer architecture is drawn in the Figure 1, The IoT layered
architecture is a flexible and There are four IoT architectures had drawn
Figure (a) baisc architecture model
consisting of Application layer, Network layer and Perception layers. Figure
(b), (c),(d) are illustrated the common
architecture of the five layer TCP/IP model, then it follow the brief
discussion of some layers
Figure 1: The
architecture of IoT 1 (a) Three
layered (b) Middle ware based layered (c) SOA based layered (d) Five layered
Perception Layer: This is first layer of the three layered
architecture, the big data created by the IoT and initiated at this layer. In
this layer digitizes the data and transfers to the Network layer through the
secure channels1. Object Layer: The objects layer is first layer of the SOA and Five
layered which is also called perception layer or devices layer. The physical
sensor devices are connected to the objects layer. The object layer contains
sensors and actuators, it performing the various functionalities such as temperature humidity,
weight, motions, vibration1.Object Abstraction
Layer: This is second layer of the SOA and Five layered, it transfers the
data to the objects layer and service management layer through the secure
channels1.Service Management Layer:
Service Management Layer is called as Middleware or pairing layer, this layer
receives the data and make the decisions and delivers the required services
over the network 1.Application Layer:
The application layer provides the environment of the services requested by the
customer. The customer needs temperature, humidity and high quality of smart
device1. Business Layer : The
business layer is also called as management layer it manage the overall system
activities and services, this layer builds the responsibility of the business
model such as graphs, statistical analysis etc. it receives the data and
process the data based on the big data analytics and making decisions1. Network Layer: In this layer transfer
the data to IoT platform and performing the important role in IoT and wireless
sensor Networks (WSNs)1.
The five layer model is most applicable model in IoT applications 1.
There are six elements of combinations
are needed to build the functionalities of IoT
identification, sensing, communication, computation, services and
semantics as shown in F igure 2.
Figure 2: The
elements of IoT 1
Identification is the first element it allocate the unique address
of the objects for identifying unique objects. The addressing modes which are
using identification is IPv4/IPv61. Sensing is the second element combination
of IoT, it gathering the data from related objects within the network and
sending it back to a data base or data ware house or cloud 1. Communication element provides
communication protocols used for IoT are WiFi, Bluetooth, IEE 802.15.4, Z-wave 1.
Computation element processing the
microcontrollers, microprocessors, SOCs, FPGPAs and utilizing to provide the
IoT hardware or software functionalities 1. Services Under the services of IoT can be categorized as four classes Identity-related
Services, Information Aggregation Services, Collaborative- Aware Services and
Ubiquitous services are the main service 1. These services are useful to
build smarthome, smart buiding, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS),
Industrial automation, Smart health care, SmartGrid and Smart city 1.