Table 1: Cloud computingversus Fog computing in IoT Cloud Computing Fog Computing There are huge Data and applications are processed in a cloud, which is time consuming task for large volume of data in IoT 1. Rather than presenting and working from centralized cloud, fog operates on network edge. so it consumes less time in IoT 1 There is a Problem of bandwidth in IoT, as result of sending every bit of data over cloud channels is a tedious task1. Less demand for band width, as every bit of data’s where aggregated at certain access points instead of sending over cloud channels1. It was a slow response time and scalability problems as a result of depending servers that are located at remote places2.
By setting small servers called edge servers in visibility of users, it is possible for a fog computing platform to avoid response time and scalability issues1. The IoT interconnecting millions and billions or trillions ofconnections with sensors or large volume of data through the internet. In thisscenario the IoT layer architecture is drawn in the Figure 1, The IoT layeredarchitecture is a flexible and There are four IoT architectures had drawnFigure (a) baisc architecture modelconsisting of Application layer, Network layer and Perception layers. Figure(b), (c),(d) are illustrated the commonarchitecture of the five layer TCP/IP model, then it follow the briefdiscussion of some layersFigure 1: Thearchitecture of IoT 1 (a) Threelayered (b) Middle ware based layered (c) SOA based layered (d) Five layered(TCP/IP) Perception Layer: This is first layer of the three layeredarchitecture, the big data created by the IoT and initiated at this layer. Inthis layer digitizes the data and transfers to the Network layer through thesecure channels1.
Object Layer: The objects layer is first layer of the SOA and Fivelayered which is also called perception layer or devices layer. The physicalsensor devices are connected to the objects layer. The object layer containssensors and actuators, it performing the various functionalities such as temperature humidity,weight, motions, vibration1.Object AbstractionLayer: This is second layer of the SOA and Five layered, it transfers thedata to the objects layer and service management layer through the securechannels1.Service Management Layer:Service Management Layer is called as Middleware or pairing layer, this layerreceives the data and make the decisions and delivers the required servicesover the network 1.
Application Layer:The application layer provides the environment of the services requested by thecustomer. The customer needs temperature, humidity and high quality of smartdevice1. Business Layer : Thebusiness layer is also called as management layer it manage the overall systemactivities and services, this layer builds the responsibility of the businessmodel such as graphs, statistical analysis etc. it receives the data andprocess the data based on the big data analytics and making decisions1. Network Layer: In this layer transferthe data to IoT platform and performing the important role in IoT and wirelesssensor Networks (WSNs)1.
The five layer model is most applicable model in IoT applications 1.There are six elements of combinationsare needed to build the functionalities of IoT identification, sensing, communication, computation, services andsemantics as shown in F igure 2.Figure 2: Theelements of IoT 1Identification is the first element it allocate the unique addressof the objects for identifying unique objects. The addressing modes which areusing identification is IPv4/IPv61. Sensing is the second element combinationof IoT, it gathering the data from related objects within the network andsending it back to a data base or data ware house or cloud 1.
Communication element providescommunication protocols used for IoT are WiFi, Bluetooth, IEE 802.15.4, Z-wave 1.Computation element processing themicrocontrollers, microprocessors, SOCs, FPGPAs and utilizing to provide theIoT hardware or software functionalities 1. Services Under the services of IoT can be categorized as four classes Identity-relatedServices, Information Aggregation Services, Collaborative- Aware Services andUbiquitous services are the main service 1. These services are useful tobuild smarthome, smart buiding, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS),Industrial automation, Smart health care, SmartGrid and Smart city 1.