The materialhandling systems used in manufacturing are automated guided vehicles (AGVs) ormobile robots. Accordingly the speed of motors is controlled andthus mobile robot is made to follow the predetermined path. To turn, one wheelis stopped while opposite wheel continues to turn.
The position of a robot isgathered from infrared sensor data. 6Researches doneon AGV till today, focus on the functions of AGV on moving materials andproducts. They also aim at finding optimal paths for AGV, routes are designedto avoid collision and deadlocks. The AGV prototype has been developed to createa framework for a co-ordinate environment providing most efficient mode oftransferring many types of materials in and out of a factory or manufacturesetting .
1 The fullyautomated vehicles should have the ability to drive safe and smooth intraffics. Path tracking, steering, obstacle avoidance and traffic laws must beconsidered in the driving goals. Some ethical principles are designed toprevent vehicle from causing harm to humans, damage to itself or other objectsor from violating traffic rules. Also the vehicle must be able to handle thesituation like if an obstacle appears in the path, it must deviate. Obstacle avoidancehas a high priority in roadways 2.Docking isdefined as the arrival and stopping a position relative to other object. Alsoit includes positioning of vehicle or equipment onboard the relative vehicle toother object.
The docking stage was implemented by introducing a vital targetbetween the current mobile robot position and the final target location. Thedesign of AGV also faces control problems like collision and deadlock alongwith guide-path routing. To solve collision problems, sensors are attached withthe vehicle. 4The vehicle’sposition can be gathered by the data obtained by the Infra-Red (IR) sensors.
Asensor controller can be used to keep the AGV on the track. Also, additional IRsensors can be used on front and side of the vehicle to detect obstacles andstations respectively. Unless the obstacle from the path is removed, the AGVstops and whenever it restarts after stopping, it recalls its operation 3.