THE CHANGING CONSTRUCTION OF WOMEN CHARACTERS IN BOLLYWOOD
Navpreet Kaur, Assistant Professor, University Institute of Media Studies, Chandigarh University
Bollywood is the name given to the Hindi film industry, which is recognized as the most prolific producer of movies in the world. As the most popular mass medium in India, Bollywood often plays the role of a mirror to the Indian society, reinforcing and reiterating common stereotypes and social norms and traditions of India. Men in most societies were seen as breadwinners while role of women was restricted to being a good homemaker and a good mother. This applies to women in a highly patriarchal society of India. With the passage of time in modern societies, the role of women changed dramatically. Media played an important role in the modernization of societies and greatly affected the image of women in today’s modern world. This is particularly true with respect to the role of the Indian women. Indian women have traditionally been subjected several ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’ in society and these norms are often propagated through Indian movies. Bollywood, being one of the biggest film industries of India, is an interesting area of research to understand the socio-cultural perspectives of today’s India.
The research paper will focus on the changing role of Indian woman. It will argue if the change is merely superficial or the Indian woman has been successful to negotiate with and challenge the patriarchal social structure. The research paper is based on the case study on the movies released from the year 2014 to 2017.
Over past decades, Indian cinema has witnessed a significant transformation in the way women are portrayed through movies. Contemporary movies portray women as more independent, confident, and career oriented. The case studies deals with these fast changing roles of women portrayed in Indian cinema and its influence on the patriarchal Indian society with a focus on some representative Bollywood movies. The aim is to link the changing character played by women in movies with the emerging status of women in India, as movies are a reflection of changes in the social structure.
KEYWORDS: cinema, women, feminism, gender inequality, Bollywood
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Father of Indian Cinema, Dadasaheb Phalke released the first ever full-length feature film ‘Raja Harishchandra’ in 1913. The silent film was a commercial success. Dadasaheb was not only the producer but was also the director, writer, cameraman, editor, make-up artist and art director. Raja Harischandra was the first-ever Indian film which was screened in London in 1914. Though Indian Cinema’s first mogul, Dadasaheb Phalke supervised and managed the production of twenty three films from 1913 to 1918, the initial growth of the Indian Film Industry was not as fast as that of Hollywood.
Numerous new production companies emerged in the early 1920s. Films based on mythological and historical facts and episodes from Mahabharata and Ramayana dominated the 20s but Indian audiences also welcomed Hollywood movies, especially the action films.
The first ever talkie ‘Alam Ara’ by Ardeshir Irani was screened in Bombay in 1931. It was the first sound film in India. The release of Alam Ara started a new era in the history of Indian Cinema. Phiroz Shah was the first music director of Alam Ara. The first song which was recorded for Alam Ara in 1931 was ‘De de khuda ke naam par’. It was sung by W.M. Khan.
Thereafter, several production companies emerged leading to an increase in the release of the number of films. 328 films were made in 1931 as compared to 108 in 1927. During this time, huge movie halls were built and there was a significant growth in the number of audiences.
During the 1930s and 1940s many eminent film personalities such as Debaki Bose, Chetan Anand, S.S. Vasan, Nitin Bose and many others emerged on the scene.
The number of films being produced saw a brief decline during the World War II. Basically the birth of modern Indian Film industry took place around 1947. The period witnessed a remarkable and outstanding transformation of the film industry. Notable filmmakers like Satyajit Ray, and Bimal Roy made movies which focused on the survival and daily miseries of the lower class. The historical and mythological subjects took a back seat and the films with social messages began to dominate the industry. These films were based on themes such as prostitution, dowry, polygamy and other malpractices which were prevalent in our society.
In the 1960s new directors like Ritwik Ghatak, Mrinal Sen, and others focused on the real problems of the common man. They directed some outstanding movies which enabled the Indian film industry to carve a niche in the International film scenario.
The 1950s and 1960s are considered to be the golden age in the history of the Indian cinema and saw the rise of some memorable actors like Guru Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Madhubala, Nargis, Nutan, Dev Anand, Waheeda Rehman, among others.
The 1970s saw the advent of Masala movies in Bollywood. The audiences were captivated and mesmerised by the aura of actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Sanjeev Kumar, Hema Malini, and many others.
The most prominent and successful director, Manmohan Desai was considered by several people as the father of Masala movies. According to Manmohan Desai, “I want people to forget their misery. I want to take them into a dream world where there is no poverty, where there are no beggars, where fate is kind and god is busy looking after its flock.”
Sholay, the groundbreaking film directed by Ramesh Sippy, not only got international accolades but also made Amitabh Bachchan a ‘Superstar’.
Several women directors like Meera Nair, Aparna Sen and others showcased their talents in the 1980s. How can we forget the extraordinary and splendid performance of Rekha in the film Umrao Jaan in 1981?
The 1990s saw a whole new batch of actors like Shah Rukh Khan, Salman Khan, Madhuri Dixit, Aamir Khan, Juhi Chawla, Chiranjivi, and many more. This new genre of actors used new techniques to enhance their performances which further elevated and upgraded the Indian Film Industry. 2008 was a notable year for the Indian film industry as A.R. Rahman received two academy awards for best soundtrack for Slumdog Millionaire.
Indian cinema is no longer restricted to India and is now being well appreciated by international audiences. The contribution of the overseas market in Bollywood box office collections is quite remarkable. Around 30 film production companies were listed in National Stock Exchange of India in 2013. The multiplexes too have boomed in India due to tax incentives.
Indian cinema has become a part and parcel of our daily life whether it is a regional or a Bollywood movie. It has a major role to play in our society. Though entertainment is the key word of Indian cinema it has far more responsibility as it impacts the mind of the audiences.
The 1980s weren’t a particularly strong time for film music either. The movie that brought back music and young romance was Mansoor Khan’s 1988 film QAYAMAT SE QAYAMAT TAK – a love story along the lines of a modern Romeo and Juliet, showing two young lovers blighted by their feuding families. Lead actor Aamir Khan shot to fame as the teen idol of the late eighties. QAYAMAT SE QAYAMAT TAK was followed by Sooraj Barjatya’s MAINE PYAR KIYA in 1989, another romantic movie with great music and family values, which brought another cinematic idol to the fore – Salman Khan. A third actor with the same surname – Sharukh Khan – became the biggest new star of the 1990s. Sharukh Khan began his career in the theatre and television before he got his big break playing a psychopath in BAAZIGAR (1993). He has acted in all of the big hits of the 1990s, including Aditya Chopra’s excellent romance, DILWALE DULHANIA LEJAYENGE (1995), and Karan Johar’s delightful KUCH KUCH HOTA HAI (1998). Sharukh Khan believes Indian cinema shares its dependence on love stories and simple plot lines with Hollywood.
The early years of the 21st century witnessed several dramatic developments in Indian cinema. Cinema was at last declared an ‘ industry’ in 2001 by the Indian Government and no sooner did this happen than the gradual ‘ corporatization’ of the entertainment and media industry took off . Banks, insurance companies and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) were persuaded to support the industry. The decline of the active dependence on funding from the ‘underworld’ of Bombay also had its beginnings around this time. But perhaps the greatest impetus to the shakeup of the industry was the rapid proliferation of ‘ multiplexes’ ( mutt-screen theatres ) and digital cinema theatres , first in the metros and later in the big cities such as Bangalore , Hyderabad , Ahmedabad and Pune . Multiplexes offer a different experience to cinema goers, for in most cases they are part of a shopping malls and comprise theatres of different sizes. Thus small budget films could be released in multiplexes and digital cinema theatres. Ticket rates are much higher in such multiplexes than in single screen theatres and therefore attract upper middle class families. This has given rise to what has to be known as ‘multiplex’ films that is small budget experimental films on subjects which are rarely touched on in mainstream cinema.
Young directors like Nagesh Kukunoor (Hyderabad Blues, Bollywood Calling and Iqbal), Sudhir Mishra (Hzaron Khawaishen Aisi) and Anurag Kashyap (Black Friday) have been able to make a mark thanks to the multiplex phenomenon. Small low budget films like Being Cyrus, Mixed Doubles, Joggers Park and other feature films were released in such theatres. At the end of 2005, there were at least 300 screens in around a hundred multiplexes across urban India. The potential of low budget films at the box office has led to the introduction of new and bold themes by young directors both in the mainstream and parallel traditions. Homosexuality, old age (Being Cyrus), HIV-Aids (My Brother Nikhil), live-in-relationships (Salaam-Namaste), communication with the physically and mentally challenged (Black, Iqbal ) , religious fundamentalism (Bombay , Roja) , nationalist history (Mangal Pandey : The Rising) , patriotism (Lagaan) , and rural development (Swadesh ) have been some of the issues taken up for analysis in feature films and documentaries over the last decade .
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Renu Saran in her book ‘History of Indian Cinema’ published in 2012 has talked that history of Indian Cinema is a concise database chronicling 98 years of Indian cinema, from its inception in 1913 to months before the date of publication. She takes a look at Hindi cinema as well as regional cinemas, listing the successful and path breaking movies of each age, major actors and directors and awards and achievements, arranged according to region and industry. This book also includes a set of interesting inside details about the functioning of the industry in different points of time, such as the training facilities available to actors, the process and criteria for film certification and the kind of equipment’s used. This kind of information would capture the imagination of some of the most ardent lovers of the movies and add another dimension to their understanding of the movies they love to watch.
2. Jasbir Jain and Sudha Rai in book Films and feminism: Essays in Indian Cinema published in 2015 explores both mainstream and parallel cinema for an analysis of the woman image, the idea of romance, the imposition and defiance of patriarchal order and a woman’s journey towards self-definition. Films reach a wider audience than literature as they move across the barriers of class, literacy, religion and even language. Not only do they reflect reality, they also construct reality. Their reach and impact makes it imperative to work through the rhetoric and melodrama of the medium to unearth the subtleties and ambiguities which lie within. This second edition, with a new introduction attempts to capture the shifts that have taken place since its earlier publication. With four new essays supplementing the earlier twenty four, the shifts in film techniques and film audiences, the blurring of the line between alternative and commercial cinema and women’s image of themselves are brought out. Largely focusing on Hindi cinema, there is also a reflection of Bengali and Kannada cinema. This new edition enlarges the scope of the inquiry into feminist concerns and feminine representation. The volume makes a significant contribution to film, gender and literary studies as it opens up multiple dimensions of inquiry.
3. Urvashi Butalia’s article in 1984 “Women in Indian Cinema” still has prevalence today as it is a general discussion of women and how they are embodied in Indian cinema. She discusses topics such as culture, religion and traditions, which should be examined when thinking and theorizing about Bollywood. She affirms that although women are becoming increasingly visible in cinema, we have to question what kind of visibility it is and who the image of the visible woman is serving. She says that “in spite of increased visibility, Indian women are not, in general, autonomous and self-defined in films” (Butalia, 1984:109). They are seen as either good or bad and not in between and they seldom question that role or the men who control the representation of that role
Butalia goes on to explain that film, since being influenced by Hollywood has begun to show seemingly strong women who have ambitions but these ambitions are almost always dashed by the fact that she is an Indian women and for Indian women, that kind of thing is just not done. She also writes about alternate Indian cinema and how these low-budget and high-conscientising films have begun to articulate social dilemmas but how they have “little impact in the home, where it is most important” (Butalia, 1984:110) because of the lack of funding and the fact that the films do not cater to the masses who want to see the typical Bollywood melodrama.
4. Sanqeeta Datta (2000) in her article “Globalization and Representations of Women in Indian Cinema” she looks at generic depictions of women in Indian cinema and Bollywood in particular. She talks about globalization and the impact that has had on Indian cinema’s representation of women which I will not delve into here. I focus on her discussion of the broad-spectrum representation of women in Bollywood film. First she discusses “the village belle” (Datta, 2000:72) and how women are portrayed as simple, traditional, motherly and dutiful. Women in Bollywood, according to Datta “serve to maintain male domination. In Indian mainstream cinema we continue to see a patriarchal version of female sexuality” (2000:74). Even strong female characters in modern films are turned into “dreamy eyed lovelorn girls” (Datta, 2000:74). As seen in fig. 5 (pg. 21), through prayer, song and dance sequences, flimsy characterization and the love story being led by the male protagonist, even in modern and seemingly progressive films, “though the narrative attempts to appear emancipated and contemporary, it presents a conservative ideology in valorizing the male and objectifying the female casting women as embodying and sustaining tradition” (Datta, 2000:74). In Datta’s (2000) view, the majority of Bollywood films represent the female protagonist as being soft, beautiful and traditional. Datta’s (2000) grouse is that this recycling of old stereotypes of the valiant male and the conservative sari-clad female and with the recycling of these stereotypes there is little room for women to make their mark as strong individuals.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To analyze the feminist understanding of the movies.
2. To critically analyze the role of movies in constructing the images of women.
With the purpose of data collection in the qualitative research we have chosen the case study for analyzing the selected films, where I have also tried to study the two stories in certain cultural and social contexts… The films are women centered and mostly have concentrated on women’s issues in different situations, especially in the gender relations context. In these films we can see various aspects of women’s lives, and the challenges which they have to face in Indian social contexts. These films also show how women can break the social and the cultural boundaries which they were constrained by.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
Changing Roles of Women
In early days, Indian cinema focused on mythological stories and great epics. The first feature film, Raja Harishchandra was a mythological story. Then during the freedom struggle period, Indian cinema became a medium to voice anger and demand independence from British Colonial rule. After independence, Indian cinema took-up social issues and problems and focused to portray a society that was not only desirable but also achievable. Period 1950s to late 1970s can be considered as the golden era of Bollywood films. In this time films focused on our rich culture, rural sector, family and friendly relationships, customs, norms and ethics. The issues of poverty were also highlighted. The beauty lied in easy identification of audiences with on the screen characters. The women discharged important role in the films. They held a lot of responsibility on their shoulders to sell the films in the market.
Women were given an equally dominant role in the films along with the male actors. Some prominent films of this era viz., Kaagaz Ke Phool, Mother India, Pakeezah, Half Ticket, and Padosan can be cited as example. To illustrate let us discuss the film “Mother India” made in 1957 by director Mehboob. He attempts to combine socialistic ideals with the traditional values. The film Mother India opens with Radha as an old woman being asked to inaugurate a new canal constructed through her village. The men presiding over the function are dressed simple, and refer to Radha as the mother of the village. They refuse to let anyone but her inaugurate the canal. The film begins with an opening note that Radha is a survivor woman and will lead in the new period of prosperity and development. The film shows the importance of being a woman. The term Bharat Mata (Mother India) is a part of the Indian consciousness.
A song in the film proclaims that the woman’s fate is to leave parental home after marriage. The lyrics of its songs are very intense. A lyric of the film goes on to state that only “laaj is a woman?s dharma”. Radha is portrayed as a common woman as an ideal wife and a daughter-in-law. She has a divine for her husband. She is very responsible and intelligent. Women watching this film easily identify with her and the men look at her non-sexually, and identify her as their own wives or mothers.
Women Characters in Bollywood movies in 1980s
Action era in Bollywood films began in 1980s. It brought big changes. The Bollywood heroines lost their strength and space to the hero. She was reduced to a glamorous component of the films. She danced around trees, kidnapped, raped or killed. An example of action role of women in the Indian cinema is a film, “Mirch Masala” directed by Ketan Mehta in 1989. It is a story of Sonbai (Smita Patil) working in a chili factory in the western part of pre-independence India. Her husband gets a job in the railways and leaves for the city. In the meantime the Subedar (or tax collector) arrives to collect taxes. He gets attracted to Sonbai, and calls village headman, (Mukhi), to bring her to him. But by mistake he brings a wrong woman. The next day Sonbai happened to pass by the Subedar?s camp where she was suddenly grabbed by the Subedar. She somehow frees herself and runs into the chilly factory where she works. An old Muslim watchman Abu Mayan (Om Puri)
She gives her protection. The ill-treated Mukhi?s wife, the Mukhiani, comes to the rescue of Sonbai after learning that her husband has allied with the Subedar to handover Sonbai to him. Mukhiani?s protest is ridiculed by the Subedar and his henchmen. They reach the factory, kill the watchman and break open the factory doors. In the final scene the Subedar approaches Sonbai when suddenly the other women in the factory throw bags of chili powder on his face. This film shows women in glamorous characters, like women dancing and the lustful Subedar looking at them. In another scene the Subedar looks at Sonbai through a telescope. In the recent history of cinema the female body became a prime element for the success of an actress. Their curvaceous bodies speak of the time they are spending in gym for work outs.
As an example, the leading lady of the I980’s, Sri Devi, is known as “thunder thighs”, Sri Devi, like other female stars, spends hours in the make-up room to portray the aggressive, dominating characters. In “Himmatwala”, she out-danced and out-fought the men. She dealt with the villains herself, and defeated them. In “Joshila” (1989) even two top male heroes could hardly hold on to their role when casted against Sri Devi. Showtime, September, I987 reported “Is Sri Devi a hero?” The attitude and perception on women had totally changed in this time. Women in Indian cinema have given tremors to traditional society norms. For example, Devika Rani, cofounder of Bombay Talkies studio, was one of the most powerful actresses of her time and gave Hindi Cinema a major change of the era.
Women Characters in Bollywood movies in1990s
Then came the period of 1990s. It brought more changes in the Hindi Cinema. The films of this time showed the changing role of female component in Indian Cinema. One such film “Mohra” made in 1994 featured Raveena Tandon (as Roma Singh). Roma’s body language depicted her as a very “liberated” woman. Writing in “G” – an Indian film magazine, Monica Motwani observed “the heroine may have metamorphosed over the years, but she still cannot break away from the shackles of certain norms set by Hindi cinema years ago.” Women lost the space they had created for themselves. Heroes grabbed the center stage and the heroines just relegated to a glamorous film component. Their presence contributed nothing to move the story forward. The more India became global the more the Bollywood films regressed.
Some filmmakers attempted stories on the empowerment of women, and actresses like Tabu and Vidya Balan got a rare chance to carry it on their shoulders. But such opportunities were few and far between some hit films of the post-liberalization era of 1990s, showed a desire for a traditional way of life where women looked after their homes and men earned the bread. Madhuri Dixit stole hearts in the biggest hits of the 1990s, Hum Apke Hai Kaun, she also established the trend of heroines who would never put their own dreams ahead of the aspirations and desires of their family. The caring homemaker role of the women was back in trend. The more recent films of late 1990s, like Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gum, Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, Dil Toh Pagal Hai, Biwi No.1, all had women as decorations and as homemakers. None of these films made by contemporary young filmmakers presented women as career women.
Even the film Dil Chahta Hai, known to be a Generation X movie, made by a young director, caught to the traditional role for its female leads. While the three male characters in the film had identities apart from their romantic ones, the females didn’t have any identity of their own. Only one character (Dimple Kapadia) is having a career but does not have a happy ending while the man who loves her finds a normal girlfriend. Among the directors of the above-mentioned films, several have studied abroad and their lifestyle is influenced by the western values. They have seen Hollywood films but still returned to traditional Indian values and conservatism through the female characters in their films.
To study the present scenario following are the movies taken for the case study from 2014 to 2017 in order to find out the whether there has been a change in the Bollywood movies or it is just an illusion.
Rani Mukherjee’s portrayal of a fierce cop in Mardaani perfectly showcases the true strength of a woman. The character is based on a real life cop who solved several child trafficking cases. Shivani Shivaji Roy not only single-handedly beat up some of the worst criminals but held her own against the evil doers. The perfect mix of strength and respect, Roy is an inspiration.
Mary Kom -2014
This character needs no introduction. The powerful portrayal of boxer Mary Kom by Priyanka Chopra is one of the strongest female roles in Indian Cinema. How Mary Kom went against her family and chased her dream to become a boxer is very inspirational. In a country where sports is not taken seriously as a career, especially for girls who are supposed to get married and look after their family, Mary Kom sets an example for all of us.
If there is one character which touched everyone’s heart, it was that of Rani played by Kangna Ranaut in Queen. Rani’s transformation from a once shy and timid girl to a confident and liberated lady was amazing. The natural, innocent and effortless acting made Rani look like a real life character and had the ability to inspire many girls to come out of the shadows and feel confident about themselves.
Revolver Rani -2014
This film is a satirical and unconventional love story which is set against the backdrop of politics. Kangana Ranaut plays the role of Alka Singh, a powerful female politician who falls in love with a rising star of Bollywood and uses her power in every way to keep him safe from her enemies. Even though the film didn’t do well at the box-office, Kangana got critical appreciation for her offbeat role in this flick.
Highway – 2015
Alia plays Veera in Highway, a young girl who is kidnapped and ends up finding peace on the journey that her kidnappers take on. She gathers the courage to stand up against the abuse she had faced as a child and questions the way of the society, which had always forbidden her to speak of such atrocities.
One of 2015’s biggest hits, Piku showed the struggles of a young independent woman juggling her personal and professional life, but in a fresh manner. Piku loved both of these aspects of her life and wanted to give up on none of them. She was a loving (at times irritated) daughter and a brilliant professional, depicting the reality of many working women today.
Dear Zindagi is a coming-of-age drama film written and directed by Gauri Shinde. The film features Alia Bhatt in the lead role, with Shah Rukh Khan, Kunal Kapoor and Ali Zafar in supporting roles. The plot centres on a budding cinematographer named Kaira, who is discontented with her life and meets Dr. Jehangir, a free-spirited psychologist who helps her to gain a new perspective on her life.
Lipstick Under My Burkha 2016
The best female-centric film of the year is, however, Lipstick Under My Burkha. The film focuses on four women, their sexuality, and how they struggle to survive in a patriarchal society. Alankrita Shrivastava’s film received rave reviews from progressive audience and it was honoured with several awards at international film festivals.
Vidya Balan as an actress never fails to win acclaim from her fans for playing challenging roles in the movies. This time too, she played Sulu, a homemaker with dreams and aspirations and believes in accomplishing them.
The movie fairly portrays her transition from a housewife to a late night Radio Jockey and beautifully hit upon the traditional gender roles and stereotypes.
Toilet Ek Prem Katha-2017
After her debut movie which spoke about body shaming, Bhumi Pednekar has touched the most sensitive issue plaguing the women of our nation – open defecation. Jaya, an educated woman, doesn’t hesitate to even file a divorce petition on the pretext of a lack of toilet in her husband’s house.
Quite courageously, she conveyed the message of the need and importance of toilets in every home
Anaarkali of Aarah-2017
Trust Swara Bhaskar to choose a unique script. Having won acclaim for many of her movies, this year too she made her mark as Anarkali, a Bihari folk dancer. Having been molested by a powerful politician, she fights for justice without the support of her friends and family.
Far from a stereotypical female lead, her character conveys the importance of ‘consent’ in every woman’s life.
After playing lead roles in movies like Tanu Weds Manu and Queen, Kangana Ranaut once again proved her ability to lead the entire film on her shoulders. In an entertaining comedy-drama – Simran, she plays the lead character who is full of self-confidence and individualism.
Simran is proud of herself and lives her life on her own terms and conditions. She has shades of grey that are such a welcome change. The film may not have garnered box-office success and was majorly flawed, but we need to give it to the film and Kangana for changing the game.
Shubh Mangal Saavdhan-2017
Bhumi once again played an extraordinary role of an ordinary woman who stands by her man suffering from an erectile dysfunction. She is not ashamed of speaking about her right to a normal sexual life and works towards finding a solution to her fiancé’s problem before marriage.
Her efforts convey the message that sex is not just a means to have babies but it is a physical and emotional bond of love between partners
The year 2017 marked a drastic change in the Bollywood movies many other movies like Begum Jaan, Noor, Dangal, Naam Shabana, Hassena Parker, Neel Batte Sanatta, Massan, Phulluri, and NH10 topped on the movie chart. But the debate is on whether films reflect life or life imitates films can also be examined in this context. Despite a large number of women working both in urban and rural areas, the films more often ignored this reality. It was a challenge to find a strong foothold by women in a male-dominated and patriarchal society. But women in Indian cinema have achieved this feat. At a time when women are breaking free of taboos and stereotypes, filmdom doesn`t seem to reflect this changing social trend. In terms of women entering films, the number has gone up manifold, but in terms of screen space, their roles have shrunk drastically. From storyline to end credits, most of the time the male counterparts get undue preference over females. Fortunately, many directors have gained popularity as harbingers of change, among film viewers who aspired a change from the typical story lines. This has afforded opportunity to heroines who want to take a different path away from the typical stereotypes. Indian film industry exhibits history of giving due respect and credit to strong women characters. Women in movie business are found potent contributors to change the face of Indian cinema in a silent, steady, and non-confrontative way. So there is need to explore and directors and film-makers and Bollywood should introspect and open up for the new roles and challenges for women in Bollywood Industry.
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